5 21 Dependent word fragments

5 21 Dependent word fragments


PROFESSOR: Now moving on to
the second common grammar issue we’re going to
cover in this module, identifying and
correcting fragments. So what is a fragment? Well, every sentence
needs three things. It has to have a
subject, a verb, and it also must express
a complete thought. So any word group that is
missing one of those three things, if it’s missing
a subject, a verb, or if it doesn’t express
a complete thought, that’s a fragment. There are four types
of fragments– four of the most common
fragments we’re going to cover in this section. The first that we
cover in this video is called dependent
word fragments. Now if you’ve been working
through this course in chronological
order, or if you’ve gone through each
module, then you’ve heard this phrase before–
dependent word fragments, or dependent words, because
we’ve covered it before. So a dependent word fragment. Any time you begin a sentence
with a dependent word, you need to be careful
that you’re not creating a dependent word fragment. A dependent word fragment
begins with a dependent word and it can’t stand alone. It depends on another
statement in order to complete the thought. Now in the last module that
we discussed dependent words, I gave you a list. And here’s that list again
of the most common dependent words. I also have this available
as a handout in this module. So you can refer
back to this slide. You can refer to that handout. Out You may want to
familiarize yourself with these most
common dependent words as we go through these lessons. So here’s an example
for you, after I learned the price of a new phone. Well, you can hear right away
how that’s a dependent word fragment. Because if I were to walk up
to you on the street and just say, after I learned the
price of a new phone. Well, you’d be waiting for
me to complete that thought. It doesn’t complete a thought. Because after is
a dependent word. Now if we get rid of
that dependent word, I learned the price
of a new phone, well, that’s a
complete sentence. That expresses a
complete thought. It’s that word after, that when
we add that to the beginning, turns it into a
dependent fragment. So how do we correct it? Well, we need to add
another statement in order to complete the thought. After I learned the
price of a new phone, I decided to keep my old one. Now, we have a
complete sentence. We have corrected the fragment. Well, let’s look
at another example. Sometimes we can add a
dependent word fragment to the end of an
earlier statement in order to complete
the thought. For example, my son
refused to stop eating meat unless I stopped also. Well, that first part is a
complete sentence, right. My son refused to
stop eating meat. We have a subject, son. We have a verb, refused. And that does express
a complete thought. If I walked up to
you and said, my son refused to stop eating meat. Well, that’s a complete thought. But unless I stopped also is
a dependent word fragment, because unless is
a dependent word. And if I just walked up to you
and said unless I stopped also, that’s not enough information. You’re depending
on more information before you know what
I’m talking about. But we can combine these two
and correct the fragment. My son refused to stop eating
meat unless I stopped also. Now, notice that when
we began the sentence with a dependent statement,
we set it off with a comma. And when we put the dependent
statement at the end, we didn’t use a comma. I’m going to flip
backwards a couple slides so you can see that. After I learned the price
of the new phone, comma, I decided to keep my old one. That dependent
phrase comes first. I set it off with a comma. But for the next
one, my son refused to stop eating meat
unless I stopped also. When the dependent
phrase came at the end, I didn’t have to use that comma. So keep that in mind as you’re
making these corrections. Now in the next
video, we’re going to practice identifying and
correcting more dependent word fragments.

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