Could a drug prevent depression and PTSD? | Rebecca Brachman

Could a drug prevent depression and PTSD? | Rebecca Brachman


Translator: Joseph Geni
Reviewer: Joanna Pietrulewicz This is a tuberculosis ward, and at the time this picture was taken
in the late 1800s, one in seven of all people died from tuberculosis. We had no idea
what was causing this disease. The hypothesis was actually it was your constitution
that made you susceptible. And it was a highly romanticized disease. It was also called consumption, and it was the disorder of poets and artists and intellectuals. And some people actually thought
it gave you heightened sensitivity and conferred creative genius. By the 1950s, we instead knew
that tuberculosis was caused by a highly contagious
bacterial infection, which is slightly less romantic, but that had the upside of us being able to maybe
develop drugs to treat it. So doctors had discovered
a new drug, iproniazid, that they were optimistic
might cure tuberculosis, and they gave it to patients, and patients were elated. They were more social, more energetic. One medical report actually says
they were “dancing in the halls.” And unfortunately, this was not necessarily
because they were getting better. A lot of them were still dying. Another medical report describes them
as being “inappropriately happy.” And that is how the first
antidepressant was discovered. So accidental discovery
is not uncommon in science, but it requires more
than just a happy accident. You have to be able to recognize it
for discovery to occur. As a neuroscientist,
I’m going to talk to you a little bit about my firsthand experience with whatever you want to call
the opposite of dumb luck — let’s call it smart luck. But first, a bit more background. Thankfully, since the 1950s, we’ve developed some other drugs
and we can actually now cure tuberculosis. And at least in the United States,
though not necessarily in other countries, we have closed our sanitoriums and probably most of you
are not too worried about TB. But a lot of what was true
in the early 1900s about infectious disease, we can say now
about psychiatric disorders. We are in the middle
of an epidemic of mood disorders like depression and post-traumatic
stress disorder, or PTSD. One in four of all adults
in the United States suffers from mental illness, which means that if you haven’t
experienced it personally or someone in your family hasn’t, it’s still very likely
that someone you know has, though they may not talk about it. Depression has actually now surpassed HIV/AIDS, malaria, diabetes and war as the leading cause
of disability worldwide. And also, like tuberculosis in the 1950s, we don’t know what causes it. Once it’s developed, it’s chronic, lasts a lifetime, and there are no known cures. The second antidepressant we discovered, also by accident, in the 1950s, from an antihistamine
that was making people manic, imipramine. And in both the case of the tuberculosis
ward and the antihistamine, someone had to be able to recognize that a drug that was designed
to do one thing — treat tuberculosis
or suppress allergies — could be used to do
something very different — treat depression. And this sort of repurposing
is actually quite challenging. When doctors first saw
this mood-enhancing effect of iproniazid, they didn’t really recognize
what they saw. They were so used to thinking about it from the framework
of being a tuberculosis drug that they actually just listed it as a side effect, an adverse side effect. As you can see here, a lot of these patients in 1954
are experiencing severe euphoria. And they were worried
that this might somehow interfere with their recovering from tuberculosis. So they recommended that iproniazid
only be used in cases of extreme TB and in patients that were
highly emotionally stable, which is of course the exact opposite
of how we use it as an antidepressant. They were so used to looking at it
from the perspective of this one disease, they could not see the larger implications
for another disease. And to be fair,
it’s not entirely their fault. Functional fixedness
is a bias that affects all of us. It’s a tendency to only
be able to think of an object in terms of its traditional
use or function. And mental set is another thing. Right? That’s sort of this preconceived framework with which we approach problems. And that actually makes repurposing
pretty hard for all of us, which is, I guess, why they gave
a TV show to the guy who was, like, really great at repurposing. (Laughter) So the effects in both the case
of iproniazid and imipramine, they were so strong — there was mania,
or people dancing in the halls. It’s actually not that surprising
they were caught. But it does make you wonder
what else we’ve missed. So iproniazid and imipramine, they’re more than just
a case study in repurposing. They have two other things in common
that are really important. One, they have terrible side effects. That includes liver toxicity, weight gain of over 50 pounds, suicidality. And two, they both
increase levels of serotonin, which is a chemical signal in the brain, or a neurotransmitter. And those two things together,
right, one or the two, may not have been that important, but the two together meant
that we had to develop safer drugs, and that serotonin seemed
like a pretty good place to start. So we developed drugs
to more specifically focus on serotonin, the selective serotonin
reuptake inhibitors, so the SSRIs, the most famous of which is Prozac. And that was 30 years ago, and since then we have mostly
just worked on optimizing those drugs. And the SSRIs, they are better
than the drugs that came before them, but they still have a lot of side effects, including weight gain, insomnia, suicidality — and they take a really long time to work, something like four to six weeks
in a lot of patients. And that’s in the patients
where they do work. There are a lot of patients
where these drugs don’t work. And that means now, in 2016, we still have no cures
for any mood disorders, just drugs that suppress symptoms, which is kind of the difference between
taking a painkiller for an infection versus an antibiotic. A painkiller will make you feel better, but is not going to do anything
to treat that underlying disease. And it was this flexibility
in our thinking that let us recognize
that iproniazid and imipramine could be repurposed in this way, which led us to the serotonin hypothesis, which we then, ironically, fixated on. This is brain signaling, serotonin, from an SSRI commercial. In case you’re not clear,
this is a dramatization. And in science, we try
and remove our bias, right, by running double-blinded experiments or being statistically agnostic
as to what our results will be. But bias creeps in more insidiously
in what we choose to study and how we choose to study it. So we’ve focused on serotonin now
for the past 30 years, often to the exclusion of other things. We still have no cures, and what if serotonin
isn’t all there is to depression? What if it’s not even the key part of it? That means no matter how much time or money or effort we put into it, it will never lead to a cure. In the past few years,
doctors have discovered probably what is the first truly new
antidepressant since the SSRIs, Calypsol, and this drug works very quickly,
within a few hours or a day, and it doesn’t work on serotonin. It works on glutamate,
which is another neurotransmitter. And it’s also repurposed. It was traditionally used
as anesthesia in surgery. But unlike those other drugs, which were recognized pretty quickly, it took us 20 years to realize that Calypsol
was an antidepressant, despite the fact that it’s actually
a better antidepressant, probably, than those other drugs. It’s actually probably because of the fact
that it’s a better antidepressant that it was harder for us to recognize. There was no mania to signal its effects. So in 2013, up at Columbia University, I was working with my colleague, Dr. Christine Ann Denny, and we were studying Calypsol
as an antidepressant in mice. And Calypsol has, like,
a really short half-life, which means it’s out of your body
within a few hours. And we were just piloting. So we would give an injection to mice, and then we’d wait a week, and then we’d run
another experiment to save money. And one of the experiments I was running, we would stress the mice, and we used that as a model of depression. And at first it kind of just looked
like it didn’t really work at all. So we could have stopped there. But I have run this model
of depression for years, and the data just looked kind of weird. It didn’t really look right to me. So I went back, and we reanalyzed it based on whether or not they had gotten
that one injection of Calypsol a week beforehand. And it looked kind of like this. So if you look at the far left, if you put a mouse in a new space, this is the box, it’s very exciting, a mouse will walk around and explore, and you can see that pink line
is actually the measure of them walking. And we also give it
another mouse in a pencil cup that it can decide to interact with. This is also a dramatization,
in case that’s not clear. And a normal mouse will explore. It will be social. Check out what’s going on. If you stress a mouse
in this depression model, which is the middle box, they aren’t social, they don’t explore. They mostly just kind of hide
in that back corner, behind a cup. Yet the mice that had gotten
that one injection of Calypsol, here on your right, they were exploring, they were social. They looked like they
had never been stressed at all, which is impossible. So we could have just stopped there, but Christine had also used
Calypsol before as anesthesia, and a few years ago she had seen that it seemed to have
some weird effects on cells and some other behavior that also seemed to last
long after the drug, maybe a few weeks. So we were like, OK, maybe this is not completely impossible, but we were really skeptical. So we did what you do in science
when you’re not sure, and we ran it again. And I remember being in the animal room, moving mice from box to box
to test them, and Christine was actually sitting
on the floor with the computer in her lap so the mice couldn’t see her, and she was analyzing
the data in real time. And I remember us yelling, which you’re not supposed to do
in an animal room where you’re testing, because it had worked. It seemed like these mice
were protected against stress, or they were inappropriately happy,
however you want to call it. And we were really excited. And then we were really skeptical,
because it was too good to be true. So we ran it again. And then we ran it again in a PTSD model, and we ran it again
in a physiological model, where all we did was give stress hormones. And we had our undergrads run it. And then we had our collaborators
halfway across the world in France run it. And every time someone ran it,
they confirmed the same thing. It seemed like
this one injection of Calypsol was somehow protecting
against stress for weeks. And we only published this a year ago, but since then other labs
have independently confirmed this effect. So we don’t know what causes depression, but we do know that stress
is the initial trigger in 80 percent of cases, and depression and PTSD
are different diseases, but this is something
they share in common. Right? It is traumatic stress like active combat or natural disasters or community violence or sexual assault that causes post-traumatic
stress disorder, and not everyone that is exposed to stress
develops a mood disorder. And this ability to experience
stress and be resilient and bounce back and not develop
depression or PTSD is known as stress resilience, and it varies between people. And we have always thought of it
as just sort of this passive property. It’s the absence of susceptibility factors and risk factors for these disorders. But what if it were active? Maybe we could enhance it, sort of akin to putting on armor. We had accidentally discovered
the first resilience-enhancing drug. And like I said, we only gave
a tiny amount of the drug, and it lasted for weeks, and that’s not like anything
you see with antidepressants. But it is actually kind of similar
to what you see in immune vaccines. So in immune vaccines,
you’ll get your shots, and then weeks, months, years later, when you’re actually exposed to bacteria, it’s not the vaccine in your body
that protects you. It’s your own immune system that’s developed resistance and resilience
to this bacteria that fights it off, and you actually never get the infection, which is very different
from, say, our treatments. Right? In that case, you get the infection,
you’re exposed to the bacteria, you’re sick, and then you take,
say, an antibiotic which cures it, and those drugs are actually working
to kill the bacteria. Or similar to as I said before,
with this palliative, you’ll take something
that will suppress the symptoms, but it won’t treat
the underlying infection, and you’ll only feel better
during the time in which you’re taking it, which is why you have to keep taking it. And in depression and PTSD — here we have your stress exposure — we only have palliative care. Antidepressants only suppress symptoms, and that is why you basically
have to keep taking them for the life of the disease, which is often
the length of your own life. So we’re calling our resilience-enhancing
drugs “paravaccines,” which means vaccine-like, because it seems
like they might have the potential to protect against stress and prevent mice from developing depression and post-traumatic
stress disorder. Also, not all antidepressants
are also paravaccines. We tried Prozac as well, and that had no effect. So if this were to translate into humans, we might be able to protect people who are predictably at risk against stress-induced disorders
like depression and PTSD. So that’s first responders
and firefighters, refugees, prisoners and prison guards, soldiers, you name it. And to give you a sense
of the scale of these diseases, in 2010, the global burden of disease was estimated at 2.5 trillion dollars, and since they are chronic, that cost is compounding
and is therefore expected to rise up to six trillion dollars
in just the next 15 years. As I mentioned before, repurposing can be challenging
because of our prior biases. Calypsol has another name, ketamine, which also goes by another name, Special K, which is a club drug and drug of abuse. It’s still used across the world
as an anesthetic. It’s used in children.
We use it on the battlefield. It’s actually the drug of choice
in a lot of developing nations, because it doesn’t affect breathing. It is on the World Health Organization
list of most essential medicines. If we had discovered ketamine
as a paravaccine first, it’d be pretty easy for us to develop it, but as is, we have to compete
with our functional fixedness and mental set that kind of interfere. Fortunately, it’s not
the only compound we have discovered that has these prophylactic,
paravaccine qualities, but all of the other drugs
we’ve discovered, or compounds if you will,
they’re totally new, they have to go through
the entire FDA approval process — if they make it before
they can ever be used in humans. And that will be years. So if we wanted something sooner, ketamine is already FDA-approved. It’s generic, it’s available. We could develop it for a fraction
of the price and a fraction of the time. But actually, beyond
functional fixedness and mental set, there’s a real other challenge
to repurposing drugs, which is policy. There are no incentives in place once a drug is generic and off patent
and no longer exclusive to encourage pharma companies
to develop them, because they don’t make money. And that’s not true for just ketamine.
That is true for all drugs. Regardless, the idea itself
is completely novel in psychiatry, to use drugs to prevent mental illness as opposed to just treat it. It is possible that 20, 50,
100 years from now, we will look back now
at depression and PTSD the way we look back
at tuberculosis sanitoriums as a thing of the past. This could be the beginning of the end
of the mental health epidemic. But as a great scientist once said, “Only a fool is sure of anything. A wise man keeps on guessing.” Thank you, guys. (Applause)

100 comments

  1. You say that the cost is trillions dollars is there a way that companies that help prevent this kind of disease can get a little tax deduction?

    Ore like in Germany where they get tree weeks of at a spa to recover if they have symptoms like the ones you discussed?

  2. 7:00 except for MDMA which fully cures PTSD and cannabis which helps with depression and both always have fore decades/centuries now…

  3. The mind is a symphony of thousands of substances and physiological mechanisms. There is no key substance. I don't think drugs are the answer. People need a purpose.

  4. I love where this woman's heart is, but the fact that a para-vaccine as she proposes will, basically eliminate or at best drastically reduce an existing massive revenue stream for those companies who have an invested interest, not to mention a further interest in her product/concept failing (for any reason out side of science… I'm sure such failure does have a price to ensure same). While not wanting to sound like a conspiracy nut… the Petrochemical Industry is a glaring light-bulb of similarity!

  5. MDMA helped me talk about my issues when i was younger. it worked great. the world is so closed minded when it comes to drugs and their true power. i have never heard of anyone going out on the town and getting into a fight on MDMA, but alcohol which is legal everywhere causes drink driving,domestic violence and deaths everywhere……such a great society we live in

  6. To prevent or cure PTSD would be amazing, But does this change you as a person? Does it numb you in a way if that makes sense?

  7. I love that 3 of the top 4 posts on this thread are jokes about the drug being a recreational drug "Yes, it's called mdma", "It's called Weed", "yes its called lsd".

    Well the joke's on them because if any of them had actually watched this video to the end then they'd know that the twist is it's actually called Special K!

  8. It's getting old listening to scientists mock how stupid scientists were in the past and flaunt arrogantly how impeccable and perfect their knowledge is in the present. The fact that these people still think the solution rests in coming up with the next best pill to control for the side effects of the last pill, is all the proof you need that they're still in the stone age when it comes to healing.

  9. This vaccine won't be profitable. Pharmaceutical companies make so much off SSRI's. They won't market something that will make their other products that bring them billions of dollars obsolete.

  10. Well that´s late. I saw studys about Ketamin as anti depresant about 10 years ago in Europe. Why does it take so long ?

  11. The great promise may be its metabolite dihydroxynorketamine (it's not the exact full name), which I think is not psychoactive in the way ketamine is "primarily", although the antidepressant doses of K needed are also lower than what you would trip from, but if anything it could help with the image connotations, and it seems like a good idea to isolate the AD activity for AD use.

  12. Glutamate is also implicated in the development of dementia. We need to be careful if this doesn't increase the risk of developing dementia. But who knows? More research is needed.

  13. Great Speech and true for more drugs than just Ketamine – I hope she will suceed. btw – she's the hottest scientist I've seen so far… ^_^

  14. A drug to prevent depression and PTSD when you actually are depressed or have PTSD? Shouldnt you be fighting the CAUSE, of your mental illness? In my eyes creating an illusionary life, escaping the problem through drug use, is just running from life. Take the red pill.

  15. Drug cannot prevent depression and PTSD, because it is about your thinking, what make you wanna to be depression and PTSD.

  16. I do not believe that depression has a cure at least not in the present times, if you say that you had depression and it was cured it was not depression it was something else but I believe that there is still going to be a cure

  17. you can't fix depression with a pill, it only hides and numbs it. depression is something that you have to fix yourself without medicine if you actually want to get rid of it and not sweep it under the rug

  18. anti depression medicines makes you "inappropriately happy"..lol. Excellent presentation on immune vaccines and palliative medicine. But there is also a healer within all of us. Use that to prevent stress and depression

  19. Mm look at that. A Ted talk about a illicit drug. Those of you that do not know, Calipsol is Ketamine. We also know that LSD and MDMA can combat these problems too.

  20. maybe thats why i enjoyed ketamine so much as a party kid given that i have the same background. i preferred it over mdma and lsd depending on what was available. not being a jerk, i mean it.

  21. It's quite obvious that she represents the big pharma. She is not even embarrassed. Depression has to be treated with minimal medication accompanied by psychotherapy. It is psychology which is much more important than medication.

  22. Well someone who has suffered from depression or is suffering from depression can truly understand the impact it has on life. True potential of a person goes to waste. It is a really debilitating disease. I know how i have transformed from my pre depression days to now. If there is cure for it and not just symptomatic cure….. a cure for the cause of the disease , it in fact would save lives of people. Not only that but it will enable a human being to reach their own potential.

  23. It is also good for "resetting" pain levels after chronic pain. Also it is fun in the bedroom with a person you love. Especially if there are any issues to overcome, like being super shy and getting panic attacks. Ketamax is the best. There are many types of Ketamine, not all brands are equal. The different isomers have different effects. Some brands of K make my pet goat feel like dirt, yet others make him happy. So don't give up at the first brand and look for "Ketamax" with the blue and white label that states "made in Germany", it should only cost $2-$10 for a 10ml bottle(1/2 gram).

    Also rubbing it on you skin where you have nerve damage really helps with the pain.

    Also, you can filter out the salt by adding the dried K to anhydrous ethanol(NO WATER!) then filtering it through a fine coffee filter. It will not hurt your goat's nose as much.

  24. YES,DEPRESSION,P.T.S.D.,ANXIETY,PANIC ATTACKS,MENTAL ILLNESSES ARE EPIDEMICS IN USA,SO PHARMACEUTICALS GET RICHER & NO CURES

  25. They say weed doesn't have side effects but I've watched people lose everything from it including their sober basic reasoning skills

  26. I DONT HAVE 2 HOURS A DAY FOR TEDS. TEDS SHOULD BE SHORTER. AND IN TEXT FORM.
    I READ 1,0000 WORD PER MINUTE. I dont have 2 hours a day for "Teds BLABBERs." Teds should be shorter. And in text form. I read 1,0000 word per minute.
    to FDA AN DEA? FREAKING MAINSTREAM KETAMINE, BECAUSE THE STREET VERSION CUT WITH FENTANYL + CARFENTANIL. CPR an ER;s saving them. We THE PEOPLE ARE WATCHING YOU. WAKE UP. PLEASE. Even CEOs,12 Steppers, and actors Guild Patients (ie. Philip Seymour Hoffman, and many more Whiteley Huston and her daughter (what tragedies) needed this drug. IT IS THE YEAR OF SUICIDES (still 2017).
    And ODS (via: Fentanyl's ) I ve seen this video 10 times. The stuff is STILL not mainstream. It has side effects on Newbies and must be a adjusted per patient. Monitored paraprofessional with a flow chart checklist. Even a trusted friend buddy system, like AA.. MDs should not be or cannot be accountable for misuse of Rx's NOTE: LIFE EXPECTANCY IN THE US HAS DROPPED 2 YEARS. BACK TO AGE 78. Since this video first came out. And many more studies, google dr. Nancy Sobiern MD., UCSD, San Diego CA. US. She is also pain management at Scripps Medical center across the same parking lot. SO MANY PATIENTS ARE TOO DEPRESSED TO EVEN GO,CANNOT KEEPP APPTS. THIS LECTURE IS THE TIP OF THE ICEBERG. Double dittos and Roswell's to 'S TO "Rebecca Brachman" for anything. Rebecca Brachman, Do you have anything more we can use? We had a cpr dead person less than 1 mile from my house. 2 days ago.

  27. Depression anxiety and ptsd
    You take illicit drugs like weed.
    You get caught with it you’ll lose everything.
    So you talk to your doctors and what they’ll give you for your problems more drugs.
    I tell them street drugs and pharmacy are the same thing but they’ll say ours are better.
    To me it’s diet, it’s exercise, it’s our culture, religion, philosophy, the way you communicate your problems to people and coping skills.
    Doctors and pushers think our problems can be fixed like a headache but depression isn’t a headache. Maybe it’s ok to feel sadness, anxiety and we as individuals have to control our own issues instead of drugs.

  28. Fungi- Take nutrients from host more than they give. In a weakend state with no explaination as to what it could be could lead to a stressful state that spirals into depression. As all things do. This is at least what I feel I am experiencing. Especially since I notice that when it feels like I'm treating my dandruff (no room for shame in science) my mood and cognitive ability to make myself feels better impoves. The more severe the dandruff the more difficult it becomes to get out of my depressive state. Sucorro!

  29. Pharmaindustry is like these NGO's helping the fishes and plants dying in a River. Wich is a good job, but theydon!t shut down the factory, poisoning that river. …Maybe cause they living to good from it?

  30. I've had depression for 20+ years, I've tried a lot of different courses of drugs but after going through all that I'd rather be dead then take anything for depression, outside of exercise, good food, social support and knowing what metal toxicity does to your brain and what poor food and mineral uptake does do your endocrine system.
    Glyphosate, E.Radiation(wifi/cellphones/smart meters), gut biology. Blood tests don't work you need hair tests.
    As mad as a hatter-Mercury
    Autism and Alzheimer's, ADHD linked with aluminium.
    Copper insomnia, schizo like symptoms
    Lead -Roman plumbing was lead think about the colosseum.
    All metal Toxicity causes depression and fatigue and your body can synthesise more of one mineral into toxic levels if it is closest to the mineral you are majorly deficient in on the periodic table.
    Good luck keep looking, magic pills and big pharma aren't your friend.
    You can treat a hand held to a burning iron by pumping it full of anesthetic but that won't address the burning iron. Painkillers are fine for a break but you need to research for yourself and take some agency onto your own hands.

  31. Ketamine drips are very expensive, insurance coverage is not available. I was offered to try it however, I declined. It lasts a week to two then you have to go back and get another
    Ketamine drip { they play music as you lay back in a cushioned chair in the dark } as it takes 20 minutes. Sometimes it doesn't even work, unfortunately you still get charged. It is
    just too expensive for me $275 – $350 every two weeks.

  32. CBD oil is an all natural way to treat depression and PTSD. No man made pills. No bad side effects. For more information go to https://www.aisley.myctfocbd.com

  33. Yeah, next month I'll just ask my psychiatrist to prescribe ketamine to prevent my borderline personality disorder, a trauma-induced mental condition, from getting worse! Thanks for waiting until 15.55 to drop THAT little bombshell!

    People bent on drug abuse have, yet again, derailed mental health treatment by making drugs that could actually HELP people virtually impossible to get legally.

    Anybody else know that MMDA, or "Ecstasy", "E", or "Vitamin E", as clubbers call it, worked virtual miracles with people with attachment disorder and has even CURED people with PTSD? But some irresponsible research subject nvolved with early scientific studies took some to a party, and the rest is history.

    I might be helped with, or even cured of, multiple psychiatric issues by the responsible, therapeutic use of these drugs, but even if I were willing to move to Santa Cruz CA, I'm not sure MAPS (Multidisciplinary Association of Psychedelic Studies) would allow me to participate in any studies with either drug, or with marijuana, all of which they have government approval to administer, because I'm over 50 years old and both mental and physical issues are chronic. Anyone who thinks they may have better odds would do well to visit www.maps.org, read about what they've done and are doing, and maybe fire off an email. I'm writing one now, an uncharacteristically optimistic gesture.

  34. What an AMAZING TED regardless of personal opinions (I’m wise therefore haven’t made my own yet) on the subject!!! Awesome job!!! 👏🏻👏🏻👏🏻👏🏻

  35. Thank you! This helped me understand how self medicating k helped me get out of my depression. I hope ppl in the near future gets to take it with a therapist in a better way then I did it.
    Bless 🙏😌

  36. I expected to see a lot of just smoke weed comments, I'm glad I don't. Those are the worst type of stoners

  37. And will it only be affordable to the wealthy and privileged…..I’m a veteran with depression and ptsd and Medicare….will insurance cover new drugs…nope….

  38. Poor people insurance doesn’t cover expensive new drugs only meant for the wealthy and privileged….nice TED talk….for the wealthy and privileged

  39. Ketamine is a dissociative. If you microdose on Ketamine obviously it’ll “help you get through tough times.”

    Also when will the pharmaceutical industry be held accountable for SSRIs which DO NOT WORK. They act by diminishing frontal lobe activity and suppressing emotions. Often times they either make people feel numb or occasionally frontal lobe activity becomes so diminished that people commit horrific crimes they normally wouldn’t do. This is backed up science. In 50 years I would not be surprised if they considered antidepressants the equivalent of blood letting. It’s so stupid.

    If psilosibyn and LSD are found to help people than hoorah! BUT DO NOT GET AHEAD OF YOURSELVES FOLKS the brain is extremely complicated. If I find out those drugs are put on the market with as few studies as Marijjuana which is ALSO not a godsend folks —(the most recent study says risk of psychosis increase by 3x! With just 10 mg). Cmon people. We desperately want LSD, and hallucinogens and other dissociatives to become legalized for no other reason so we can legally trip. We need to stop with this bullshit and study each drug, their method of action, and how they work for a significant number. I think we need a meta analysis, we need a huge 20000 plus study along with placebo and control group. We need long term effects. We need to know everything.

  40. My mom works at a place where they help people get past drugs like a recovery center, and she said Ketamine was a super addictive drug that people were in there for. I have bad anxiety but I’m not going that long 40 year path of ongoing drug addiction and crime for my stupid 15 year old choice wanting to cure my anxiety to socialize more with the world at that time when I can just grow out of it when I’m 16

  41. 2017: A person is discussing about drug that could prevent depression and PTSD

    2019: The same person is still discussing about drug that could prevent depression and PTSD.

    What changed?

  42. Male depression: I wana die.
    Female depression: my lifes so hard my waistline is so big cus i eat to much.

  43. They used Ketamine via IV on me three separate times in the ER for severe migraine pain and compared to most options it was fairly effective.
    You have to keep in mind that by the time the pain is severe enough to take me to the ER my options are somewhat limited as the pain and other symptoms are so far out of control.
    I’ve been considering investigating it to combat my major depression now.
    As for my share of pain; I think I’ve given enough.

  44. PLEASE do whatever it takes to make this medication available to the public. I'll simply say that my life depends on it. I'm not able to do 90% of the things I want in life I just cant do. I hope someone hears me. Thank you for your work to help people in my condition.

  45. I was completely on board until I heard it was just Special K. I have met a lot of people with severe depression that have tried special K over the years and they still have depression. Could it be that it only works if your depression was about to come on for the first time and the special K would allow the body to handle the stress and thus never get the depression in the first place? Because if so that would mean that the drug would have no help for all the people who already have depression right?

  46. NO NO NO, Ive worked with PTSD for over 10 years drugs don't work end of. Talking based therapies work

  47. By way of sad irony, this popped up after an Irving Kirsch video explaining the myths and dangers of largely ineffectual but dangerous anti-depressants. This lady moved from cures for real diseases like TB to curative claims in respect of depression. The correlation is dubious.

  48. This girl pretends she discovered murine stress models of mice and the effect of ketamine. How incredibly dishonest. TED should delete this fraud.

  49. My antidepressants help with my anxiety but not with my depression. I also suffer from ptsd and I really want to try ketamine treatment.

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