HIV & AIDS – signs, symptoms, transmission, causes & pathology

HIV & AIDS – signs, symptoms, transmission, causes & pathology


HIV, or human immunodeficiency virus, is a
virus that targets cells in the immune system. Over time, the immune system begins to fail
which is called immunodeficiency, and this increases the risk of infections and tumors
that a healthy immune system would usually be able to fend off. These complications are
referred to as AIDS, or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Now there are two distinct types of HIV—HIV-1
and HIV-2. HIV-1 is the more commonly associated with AIDS in the US and worldwide, HIV-2 is
more rare, and typically restricted to areas in western Africa and southern Asia. HIV-2
is so uncommon that “HIV” almost always refers to HIV-1. Alright HIV targets CD4+
cells, meaning cells that have this specific molecule called CD4 on their membrane. Macrophages,
T-helper cells, and dendritic cells are all involved in the immune response and all have
CD4 molecules; therefore they can be targeted by HIV. The CD4 molecule helps these cells
attach to and communicate with other immune cells, which is particularly important when
the cells are launching attacks against foreign pathogens. So this little molecule is pretty
important for our immune system, but it’s also extremely important for HIV. HIV targets
and attaches to the CD4 molecule via a protein called gp120 found on its envelope. HIV then
again uses gp120 to attach to another receptor, called a co-receptor. HIV needs to bind to
both the CD4 molecule and a coreceptor to get inside the cell. The most common co-receptors
that HIV uses are the CXCR4 co-receptor, which is found mainly on T-cells, or the CCR5 co-receptor
which is found on T-cells, macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells. These coreceptors are so important that some
people with homogeneous genetic mutations in their CCR5 actually have resistance or
immunity to HIV, since HIV can’t attach and get into the cell. In fact, even heterozygous
mutations which lead to fewer co-receptors on the cells, can make it harder for the virus
to spread, and results in a slower disease progression. For those without this mutation though, once
HIV binds to CD4 and either CCR5 or CXCR4, it gains access to the cell. HIV is a single-stranded,
positive-sense, enveloped RNA retrovirus, meaning that it injects its single strand
of RNA into the T-helper cell. The “retro” part of retrovirus isn’t referring to its
style, but refers to it needing to use an enzyme called reverse transcriptase to transcribe
a complementary double-stranded piece of “proviral” DNA. Proviral just means that it’s ready
to be integrated into the host’s DNA, so it enters the T-helper cell’s nucleus and
pops itself into the cell’s DNA, ready to be transcribed into new viruses, pretty sneaky,
huh? Well here’s the actual sneaky part—when the immune cells become activated, they start
transcribing and translating proteins needed for the immune response. Ironically, this
means that whenever the immune cell is exposed to something that causes it to start up an
immune response, like any infection, the immune cell ends up inadvertently transcribing and
translating new HIV viruses, which bud off from the cell membrane to infect more cells.
Very sneaky indeed! One thing to know is that HIV is notorious
for making errors when it replicates and that during an infection it can mutate to create
slightly different strains of viruses. These viruses are all still considered “HIV”
but behave slightly differently from each other and target different cells in the host,
in fact that host cell preference is called viral tropism. So let’s start with HIV entering
the body through sexual intercourse which is how it typically spreads from person to
person. At this early point, during what we call acute infection, the R5 strain of HIV,
which bind to the CCR5 coreceptor will get into macrophages, dendritic cells, and T cells.
Usually dendritic cells hanging out in the epithelial or mucosal tissue where the virus
entered the body, capture the virus and migrate to the lymph nodes, where a lot of immune
cells live, and the R5 strain of HIV essentially has a field day, infecting T-helper cells,
macrophages, and more dendritic cells, which leads to a big spike in HIV replication and
the amount of virus found in the patient’s blood. Patients typically experience flu-like
or mononucleosis-like symptoms during the acute infection. In response, the immune system
mounts a counterattack, and starts to control the amount of viral replication, and the amount
of virus in the blood declines to lower but still detectable levels by 12 weeks—at which
point the patient enters the chronic or clinically-latent phase, which can last between 2 and 10 years.
If we also plot the amount of T cells alongside the amount of virus, we’ll see that they
loosely mirror each other, which makes total sense, right? Initially you have a considerable
decline in the acute phase until the immune system mounts its counterattack. After this
point, even though there may not be any clinical signs or symptoms of the virus, the virus
is steadily chipping away at the immune system, and the number of viruses in the blood slowly
increases, while at the same time T cells slowly decrease, losing about 1-2 billion
T cells every day. During this chronic phase, T cell counts usually remain above 500 cells
/ mm3, about the size of the head of a pin, and patients can still fight off other infections
fairly well, although some infections like tuberculosis become more common and severe. Remember how HIV replication can create mutations?
Well during the chronic phase of HIV infection, it’s worth pointing out that some patients
develop an X4 strain of HIV which targets the CXCR4 coreceptor, which is essentially
only T-cells. These X4 strains kind of lay low in the lymphoid tissues, and steadily
destroy of CD4 T cells, since about 90% of T cells are found in lymphoid tissue. Not
all patients develop the X4 strain, though, so it’s not completely clear what the presence
of this strain implies about the disease course. When the body’s T cells drop low enough,
between about 200 and 500 cells / mm3, patients start experiencing symptoms like swollen lymph
nodes, or lymphadenopathy, as well as relatively minor infections like oral hairy leukoplakia,
a hairy-looking white patch on the side of the tongue caused by the same Epstein-Barr
virus that causes mononucleosis, as well as oral candidiasis, a yeast infection in the
mouth. As more T cells are lost, and the level falls below 200 cells / mm3, the immune system
becomes severely compromised and at this stage the condition has progressed from HIV disease
to AIDS. At this point people experience things like persistent fever, fatigue, weight loss,
and diarrhea. And the HIV count in the blood might increase significantly. At this point, certain conditions start to
develop that are said to be “AIDS-defining”, such as recurrent bacterial pneumonia, pneumocystis
pneumonia, and fungal infections like candidiasis of the esophagus. Other conditions include
certain tumors and malignancies like Kaposi sarcoma which causes lesions on the skin and
other soft tissues, and primary lymphoma of the brain. Many people with AIDS die from
infections that a healthy immune system would typically be able to fend off, like pneumocystis,
cytomegalovirus, or mycobacterium avium complex. Male-to-male transmission is the most common
mode of transmission in the US, and male-to-female is the most common mode in resource-limited
settings. Although less common, female-to-male transmissions occur as well since HIV is present
in the vaginal and cervical fluids of infected women. In fact, over 75% of all cases of HIV
are contracted from sexual intercourse. The next most common means of transmission include
things like intravenous drug abuse and mother-to-child transmission, which can be via the placenta
during delivery, or via breast milk. Other, much less common modes of transmission include
accidental needlesticks, and use of blood products like blood transfusions. As far diagnosis goes, there are a few types
of HIV tests that can be done—antibody tests, antibody/antigen tests, and RNA/DNA tests.
Antibody tests look for antibodies that the body’s made against HIV. Antigen tests look
for the virus directly, so antibody/antigen tests detect both antibodies to the virus
as well as the virus itself. RNA tests screen for viral RNA, so they also detect the virus
directly, and DNA tests look for copies of the viral RNA (since remember it’s a retrovirus
so it copies its genetic material into DNA). For screening purposes, the recommended test
is the antibody/antigen test, which is better at identifying early infection. It’s also
recommended, if the first test is positive, to follow it with a confirmatory test that
looks for antibody or nucleic acids. There’s currently no cure for AIDS; treatment
however, can help somebody with AIDS live longer, healthier lives and help reduce the
risk of transmission. The primary method is to use antiretroviral therapy, or ART. ART
isn’t a single medicine, but a combination of medicines that’s known as an HIV regimen.
These help slow down HIV replication, which gives the immune system a chance to recover
and help fight off other infections more effectively.

64 comments

  1. Agree 100 percent. Nice video. I only have 1 question why can't the body detect Hiv during the early phase or upon entry? I have a theory which could be extremely wrong- because Hiv is so unique- the body of course can detect Hiv. However during early immune response Hiv can easily elude this by giving up its receptor sites( gp 120). The immune system would stop attacking the virus because it only attacks virus with antennas or gp 120. In the absence of gp 120 it would shut down. Then Hiv would grow back its gp 120 if threatened again it would give it up again. The process would go on and on until it reaches its target tcells. By then it's check mate.anyway it's just a theory which is probably wrong anyway. I just wish people with Hiv aids will be healed soonest.

  2. I think I've got this and it really scares me, I've ordered a free test kit, I've only ever had sex once, about 3 weeks ago, now I feel like I have the flu or a really bad head cold, and my energy is so low, I'm so terrified that my life has been ruined now, I guess time will tell, but regardless of what my result is I'm going to be so much more careful and do less reckless things in terms of sex now.

  3. Truthfully, i was tested HIV + positive last 3years. I keep on managing the drugs i usually purchase from the health care agency to keep me healthy and strenghtful, i tried all i can too make this disease leave me alone, but unfortunately, it keep on eating up my life, this is what i caused myself, for allowing my fiance make sex to me insecurely without protection, although i never knew he is HIV positive. So last two [2]week i came in contact with a lively article on the internet on how this Powerful Herb Healer get her well and healed. So as a patient i knew it will took my life some day, and i need to live with other friends and relatives too. So i copied out the Dr Eddymon the traditional healer’s email id: [email protected] and I mailed him immediately, in a little while he mail me back that i was welcome to his temple home were all what i seek for are granted. I was please at that time. And i continue with him, he took some few details from me and told me that he shall get back to me as soon as he is through with my work. I was very happy as I heard that from him. So three (3) days, as i was just coming from my friends house, Dr Eddymon called me to go for checkup in the hospital and see his marvelous work that it is now HIV negative, i was very glad to hear that from him, so i quickly rush down to the nearest hospital to found out, only to hear from my hospital doctor called Browning Lewis that i am now HIV NEGATIVE. I jump up at him with the test note, he ask me how did it happen and i recede to him all i went through with Dr Eddymon I am now glad, so i am a gentle type of person that need to share this testimonies to everyone who seek for healing, because once you get calm and quiet, so the disease get to finish your life off. So i will advice you contact him today for your healing at the details: Email ID:[email protected] or call and whatsapp him on +2348128107710 CONTACT HIM NOW TO SAVE YOUR LIFE:[email protected] AS HE IS SO POWERFUL AND HELPFUL TO ALL THAT HAVE THIS SICKNESS, If you doubt his success rate you can as well call me too on +15083482711.

  4. The treatment for AIDS patients is established by a global Israeli company. We are agents to communicate through the wattasab 00972567534407

  5. To all people saying they don’t wanna gave sex anymore, use a fucking condom you idiots! Have some common sense please, jesus.

  6. PEOPLE I THOUGHT CARED FOR ME OSTRACIZED, STIGMATIZED AND VILIFIED ME 24 YEARS AGO AND SINCE. I PROVED THEM AND HIV TO BE BOGUS. I KICKED EM ALL TO THE CURB THEN AND FOREVERMORE. AS AN AVID ACTIVIST AND LIVING PROOF, THE BOGUS KILLED SO MANY OF MY FRIENDS AND THEIR OWN JUST LIKE BOGUS HIV HAS KILLED 40 MILLION GLOBALLY.
    THIS TOO IS WHY I HATE HUMANS AND HUMANITY…..SHEER GULLIBILITY, FEAR AND GENERAL STUPIDITY.
    HUMANS ON THIS NIGHTMARE ILLUSION PLANET ARE THE BAD NEIGHBORHOOD OF THE SPIRITUAL WORLD. I CAN HARDLY WAIT FOR IT AND THEY TO BE DESTROYED.
    FULL STORY…IMPROMPTU NEBTHET MUSICAL.

  7. DONT FALL FOR FEAR PROPAGANDA. NEVER TAKE A BOGUS HIV TEST AND ROUTE YOURSELF INTO THAT DEATH CAMPAIGN FOR GENOCIDE, EUGENUCS, PROFITEERING OFF THE SUFFRERING AND DEATH OF INNOCENT PEOPLE, STIMULATING WORLD ECONOMIES, POPULATION REDUCTION, AND ORGAN HARVESTING FOR MELANIN.
    *
    LOVE YOURSELF…ALL OF YOURSELF.
    NEVER TAKE A BOGUS HIV TEST!!!
    NO SHAME. NO GUILT OVER BEING YOURSELF!!
    TELL THE BOGUS TO GO FUK THEMSELVES.

  8. BOINCers all over the world are fighting against HIV and other deseases 24 / 7 with their private PC since 2003. Gridcoin gives them an extra motivation to keep on fighting.

  9. Im dying of aids because I can't get treated because I'm hiv negative and this doctor preferred to see me die than to break protocols to help me also my wife is the same I dont have a lot of time left

  10. Ask for a problem not having the top bone in the spine in the neutral or orthogonal
    position beneath the opening at the base of the skull. The rest of the vertebra will shift out of the neutral position more and more over time. Look at the spinal shape of people. A sudden impact to the head, fall or accident will accelerate the asymmetries. This puts pressure on the nerves that are exiting small pathways out of the spine. Symptoms known and unknown will be occurring in the body. Doctors smile inside. They begin to prescribe drugs. They don't want people to know about Upcspine or The Spesific or NUCCA or Upper Cervical heath Centers. They will take their money away. Ask and receive is needed world wide. Anyone will be able to get that preventative care .It will help as good as your spinal disks are. The spinal discs are supposed to move slightly – float one upon the other. Problems begin to occur when that does not happen. You cannot determine that on your own.

  11. What a load of hogwash – all the processed food and GMOs are the hiv/proteins that'll make you sick. There's no hi- virus.

  12. Do not believe this theory at all , please look at a Neville Hodgkinson interview it will open your eyes

  13. Why should it effect Africa differently to the UK , there is no heterosexual epidemic in the UK but there is in Africa, this is sometimes explained by a racist view of African people being more promiscuous but look at the way anal sex is so popular in America & Europe but not in Africa, it doesn’t make sense at all , this theory is flawed in so so many ways , it’s a bullshit theory that was so convenient that they don’t want to change it around , you might as well be reading stories from the bible because this is just a well thought out story that most people just believe, the masses may believe this but the minority who have figured it out are rapidly growing, the dissenting voices shall be heard

  14. That is why we say that gays may be the cause of our extinction

    ولي هاذا السبب نقول ان شواذ قد يكونو سبب من اسباب إنقراضنا

  15. Why tgere exist only animations but no microscopical proof or process or virus identity.
    Why virus is drawn in different ways , may be nobody have seen it.

    All symptoms copy from radiation disease after inhalling or digesting radio active particles……..

  16. Peter Deusberg, Kary Mullis, Rodney Richards, Neville, Dr David Rasnick, John Lauritsen, Dr Claus Kohnlein, Dr Christian Fiala, Joan Shenton, wake up , this theory has so so many flaws , I know of thousands who have HIV & are completely ok after many many years without toxic medication, the world is waking up to this awful mistake , so many innocent people have lost there lives because of this stupid tragic mistake

  17. Im on file at planned parenthood
    And the last time i had sex was in late December 2015 with a white girl ,it consisted of my penis ,her vigina and a rubber. The last time i was tested was 6/23/19 @ planned parenthood with a result of negative. On ths spot they prick your finger and place a drop of your blood on the HIV test .20 minutes later your given your results. Im also on file with the county of Los Angels free clinics where they also draw your blood for testing. Knowing is half your battle.

  18. If someone is maliciously trying to do something to you like spreading an std such as AIDS contact your local authorities immediately

  19. how I got cured from HIV Virus. Few months back I was having some symptoms . I went to see a doctor and many blood tests was done on me, later on I was told I had HIV. My doctor told me that No cure in Hiv positive And I felt bad, I went online searching for a possible cure for Hiv Virus, I saw a post of Dr odigie a herbal doctor that's helping people get cured from HPV, HIV, Herpes e.t.c. i contacted him and told him how I'm feeling he said his herbal medicine can cure me. He sent me the medicine via D.H.L delivery service and I received the medicine some days after he sent it, i took the medicine as prescribed by him. Before the completion of the medication the symptoms stopped. I went to the doctor and carried out another blood test, surprisingly I was Negative. I haven't had any symptoms anymore. Dr ODIGIE is great and you can contact via ([email protected] com Kindly whatsapp him via (+2347060751742)

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