New Cancer Drug Results and Vampire Bat Friendships

New Cancer Drug Results and Vampire Bat Friendships


♪♪♪ This week in the journal Nature, researchers
announced that a novel cancer drug is making progress in clinical trials. The drug targets a growth pathway that’s
proven difficult in the past, potentially giving us a new way to treat cancers with
specific mutations. Now cancer, in its most basic sense, happens when normal cells start growing out of control. There are a lot of different reasons why this happens, so cancer, it turns out, is many different things. Often, the culprit is a mutation in a gene
that controls cell growth. If that gene goes haywire, cell growth can
too, and that can create a tumor. But recently, a drug designed to target one of those haywire genes began clinical trials. The gene in question is called KRAS. It’s the most frequently mutated cancer-causing gene we know of, and it’s often implicated in lung, colon, and pancreatic cancers. KRAS makes a protein also called KRAS, which
relays signals from outside of the cell into the nucleus. Those signals tell the cell when it’s time
to grow and divide. KRAS basically acts as a molecular switch:
when it’s on, it relays signals to the nucleus; when it’s off, it doesn’t. It does that by binding to two different forms of a particular molecule. GTP is the “on” form that lets those signals
flow, while GDP turns it off and halts the signals. So normally, the KRAS protein will bind to
GTP and send growth signals for some amount of time, then it’ll convert that GTP into GDP, and growth will stop. But when there’s a mutation in the KRAS
gene, things don’t go according to plan. One particular mutation sometimes seen in cancer, known as KRAS G12C, prevents the protein from converting GTP into GDP In other words, it keeps those growth signals from turning off. If you could create a drug that could lock
the KRAS gene in its “off” state, you could potentially slow or stop the growth
of tumors caused by that mutation. That’s precisely what the drug AMG 510 does. It binds to the KRAS protein and makes it
behave just as it would if it were bound to the “off” molecule GDP. Last year, AMG 510 began clinical trials,
making it the first treatment of its kind to reach clinical testing in humans. Before you get too excited, I should mention that this is a phase 1 trial. That means that the trial is only looking
at safety, side effects, and the best dose and timing for the treatment. Testing for effectiveness comes later. Even so, this week we got some results from those trials, and things are looking pretty good. Two patients with lung cancer saw their tumors
shrink by 34% and 67%, respectively, after just six weeks of treatment. And both remained on the treatment for months after that — and seemed to be tolerating it well when the study was written up. The researchers also found that AMD 510 could
be even more effective when combined with immunotherapy, a treatment that trains the
body’s own immune cells to fight cancer growth. Overall, AMD 510 is looking like it’s safe
at the dose being tested, and there’s some preliminary evidence that it can fight tumors
in lung cancer patients. It’ll take more clinical trials to see just
how effective it is, but the future is looking bright. Next up, we go from curing cancer… to a
bit of not-so-spooky Halloween fun. We’ve known for a while that friendship
is important. Friendships make people happier and healthier,
and even help them live longer. And we humans aren’t the only ones who get
to experience it. Many species form close, enduring bonds with
each other, and also recognize those bonds in others. But animal friendship is actually tough to
study. Like, we can’t really ask animals about
their pals. How do you know if two animals are only hanging
out because they’re in captivity together? Or, if they’re in the wild, how do you know
they’re grooming each other because they’re buddies and not because there’s some other
complex social factors at play? To untangle questions like these, researchers
based in Germany performed an experiment with the ultimate Halloween species: vampire bats. The results were reported yesterday — yes,
on Halloween — in the journal Current Biology. They found a hollow tree in Panama that was
home to around 200 vampire bats and captured 23 females, some related, some not. They kept these bats in captivity for 22 months
and watched to see what kinds of social bonds emerged. You know, who groomed who, who roosted near
who, that kind of stuff. Every so often, they’d withhold food from
a few individuals to see who would share with them — which vampire bats do by, you know,
regurgitating their blood meal directly into the other bat’s mouth. That behavior is really costly for the bat,
and it mostly just happens between mothers and offspring. So if unrelated adults do it, you know they’re
tight. Like #friendshipgoals. Then, the researchers affixed these bats with
tiny backpack sensors and released them back into their tree. That way, they could keep track of what they
did once they were out of captivity. After 8 days of observation, the researchers
found that most of the bats that had formed bonds in captivity continued those bonds in
the wild. The bats who had cooperated the most together
in captivity roosted closer together once they were back in the tree, showing that their
social relationships had strengthened while they were away. Even more importantly, it showed that the
friendships researchers have seen in vampire bats previously were likely not just a result
of being in captivity. The researchers conclude that vampire bats
can form social bonds that are similar to the friendships seen in other species. Studying those friendships can not only help
us learn more about animal behavior, but it can also help us understand human bonds a
little better, too. Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow
News. It’s a new month, and you know what that
means: its a new DFTBA.com spacecraft pin of the month! For the month of November, you can pre-order
this awesome Mariner 9 pin! This little 70s throwback Mars explorer even
has the Red Planet in the background. You can order it through the end of November,
after which it’ll ship in December and we won’t make any of them ever again… but we will make a whole other new pin, so
stay tuned to see what that one will be! Check it out at DFTBA.com or the merch shelf
below this video. ♪♪

100 comments

  1. I’ve a question, why do dogs scrape the ground/grass after they pee? Are they trying to hide it or what? Not all dogs do it tho….

  2. As a long time hunter i've always known that there is no difference between animals and humans, we are both capable of the same types of emotions, we share and respond to a lot of the same things with similar behavior, the differences are only etymological

  3. I'm imagining aliens putting humans in prisons to see how our social dynamics work, then tagging us with this enormous boxes on our backs, which we can't remove, but which everyone can see. Yeah. I'm pretty sure I'd only ever talk to the other people with boxes on their backs too…

  4. Cancer ate my mothers face, she was too old and too weak to endure the chemo. If we could have stopped the growth, giving her more time ? Too late for her but i hope it helps someone else

  5. Not sure where to post a video suggestion but I've seen some videos of "sky trumpets" and I haven't found any solid answers on the cause of them. They are supposedly heard all over the world at different times. I'm hoping you guys can shed some light on this phenomenon.

  6. Sweet blood regurgitators.
    I wish we germans could time events always as perfectly as they did.

    Wont go in depth about that, though.

  7. This is an amazing video, very informative. Also can we just give props to the editing team? The slides are amazing, the size and colors of the words help a lot when reading!

  8. This comment has absolutely nothing to do with this video: Alcohol is extremely deadly. If you drink regularly, like every weekend off or everyday, every other day, a few times a month you are causing quite a bit of damage to not just your liver, but your stomach, esophagus, pancreas, kidneys, bladder, heart, and your brain as well as your mouth.
    If you drink, but claim you aren't a drug user then you are just lying to yourself and whoever else your telling.
    Alcohol IS the most deadly substance man ingests. There is a reason drunks get hangovers, and it is basically your body telling you that it's been damaged. It robs the body of very important nutrients and vitamins and yes it does cause cancer.
    In the United States 6 people on average die every single day of the year just from overdosing on Alcohol alone.
    Alcohol as well most people know is very glamorized and we see it on tv for those who still watch good ol fashioned tv with commercials. It's in magazines, on billboards and you can buy it on every other street corner in America. It along with tobacco are available to all who want to destroy themselves, and that's exactly what both of those products do. I'm not trying to tell people that they cannot drink or smoke, this is a constitutional Republic where we have the freedoms to do such stupid things if we so choose to, but there are ALOT of ignorant people who just don't know just how badly they are hurting themselves with booze.
    Google it for yourselves there is an actual list of drugs rated in their level of dangerousness and you will see that Alcohol is at the very tip top of this list. On the bottom of the list are rightfully so the drugs Marijuana, DMT, Mescaline, Psilocybin, MDMA, and my personal favorite LSD.
    Although, the drugs MDMA, and Mescaline can hurt your body if you aren't being responsible using it, but LSD and psilocybin if used correctly are very very safe, and contrary to what we were taught in DARE and the msm since it's criminalization (LSD) specifically it actually doesn't cause brain damage or damage to other vital organs like many other drugs like Alcohol do. Both Psilocybin and LSD have actual mental health benefits and are far better alternatives for treating anxiety disorders including PTSD.
    Depression, something millions suffer from can be immediately improved vs taking a pill for a month before you might see some marked improvement and I stress the word might. Alot of the drugs marketed for depression and anxiety, PTSD carry so many side effects up to and including possible death or worsened depression, anxiety, and PTSD.
    Some of them are addictive even causing yet more problems. LSD carries absolutely none of these horrid side effects, and along with Psilocybin are even great drugs that have the potential to halt addictions to many drugs including Alcohol, Nicotine, opiates, and speed.
    Bill W. the founder of Alcoholics Anonymous used LSD to aid himself in quitting booze.
    The only people whom this substance wouldn't be good for are those with schizophrenia or other mental illnesses similar and those with heart and blood pressure problems. For many many others these substances are very very great alternatives and deserve more research from fresh sets of brains.

  9. Some Times mRNAs genes being used can come back to the main genetic strand .
    Douplicating genes .
    More evidence for Lamerkism over Darwinism . To witch the Spartans already tested . And let to genetic boddleneck . Leading to it's collapse

  10. I think it's been a long week. I definitely read the title as New Cancer Drug Results in Vampire Bat Friendships. lol

  11. Speaking of which, dr Burzynski was in the third phase of clinical trials… you guys should follow up on him. Curing cancer without side effects.

  12. Cancer:*exists*
    Amg 510:IM ABOUT TO RUIN THIS MANS ENTIRE CAREER

    And also my grandma sadly pasted a few years back from cancer and I’m happy to see that they are working hard to cure cancer

  13. How did they get the drug to selectively affect cancer cells and not turn off the growth signal for all cells? I’m working on BNCT and that is the problem we keep running into.

  14. You should do a video on white nose syndrome and how the bat population is dying off at a frightening rate… from the internal email I read where I work something like 90% have died off already. Bats are very critical to our ecosystem and one most people hardly notice…

  15. What gets frustrating is that I've been hearing about these revolutionary cancer treatments that are on the horizon for decades. I then just hear crickets.

  16. Make one about why eyepatches help your eyesight! Wore an eye patch every day for about an hour or so and when I went back to the optometrist we were quite sure to find that my eyesight got a bit better in that eye and allowed my prescription to be lessened (She had no idea I did it so she couldn't be saying that just because)

  17. That sounds really impressive. A vampire bat can die if it misses just one blood meal and is severely at risk with a half meal. A friend risking it's own to save a friend's life. A friend in need…
    But it would be more scientifically fulsome if the rest of the colony was studied along with the "friends". It's already known that a vampire bat which had an unsucksessful hunt will not starve because other colony members sacrifice some of their meal to keep another from death. Do we know for sure that it's because of the friendship?

  18. Honestly it'd probably be easier to just use some wide-spectrum CRISPR set to block and/or shread the entire genome upon detecting /any/ variation in it rather then just targetting the ones responsible for cancer; there'd probably be a bit of friendly fire from benign mutations but it'd probably be way less them chemo anyway.

  19. Man, I like the Pizzamas shirts I have (2), but I think the one Hank has is my fave… But I'm broke so no $$$ cry <3

  20. AMD 510? Do people really not watch their videos back to catch mistakes? Pathetic. But I do know this guy doesn’t edit the videos. But he’s the one looking stupid when he messes up so I would myself.

  21. Sees the pin, wants it,
    looks in the description of the video for a link to your shop,
    there isn't one, even though you said it's down there.
    Links I see,
    SciShow Tangents
    Patreon
    Facebook
    Twiter
    Tumblr
    Instagram
    Then a bunch of sources.

    I don't see a link to your store anywhere.

  22. I am surprised to find no tin foil hat in the comment section claiming we already have the cure for cancer and that it is being hidden from people by the pharmaceutical industry.

  23. FDA will prevent distribution of any good medicine for decades. SciShow will never call them out, cuz that would go against their leftist academic lapdog status.

  24. AMG 510 seems to work similarly to Imatinib, a drug that stops the protein made by a mutated gene which causes CML, a kind f leukemia. I have a video of how imatinib was discovered and how it cured CML, I recommend you check it out

  25. DRUG ARE FOR DRUG ADDICTS. STOP LISTENING TO THIS UNEDUCATED PUPPET HE IS NOT A DOCTOR OF MEDICINE. He has NO CLUE what he is talking about. Becarful listening to this CRAP. shame on you for being ignorant about what you are trying to talk about. SHAME ON YOU. 😕

  26. Science is awesome and all, but is anyone else just a little uncomfortable that scientists basically abducted some individuals for almost TWO YEARS before returning them home? Maybe it's fine, but … I have serious reservations about this kind of practice.

  27. “Then the researchers affixed these bats with tiny backpack sensors (..)”
    *picture in background shows bat fighting gravity with giant walky talky strapped to its back

  28. If you turn the gene off, wouldn’t that also effect good cells? Skin cell, hair growth…what happens if other cells get turned off? How can this cancer medication target just the one type of cell?

    As a survivor of Cancer, I am suffering the damage to other parts of my body caused by the “cure”. Happy to be alive but would have liked to be able to swallow, breath, smile, and have a working thyroid (to name a few) after the treatment.

  29. So we could gust die of old age in the future witch is bad we do need to die if we cure everything and master medicine then what’s gonna kill us because death is natural and we all need to die

  30. Love the channel, everything is really well-researched and beautifully presented! Really inspired me when I wanted to start my own. I just reached 100 subs, and want to grow even more. I recently uploaded a vid about the enlightenment, feel free to check it out (it's under two minutes)

  31. I read the title as "vampire rat friendship" and with the bat as a thumbnail I was wondering what relationship a vampire bat has with a rat.

  32. >captured 23 bats, kept them imprisoned and randomly starved a few to see if anyone would help them

    So just as in people, the most enduring animal friendships come from shared ptsd

  33. Assuming the cancer drug makes it through all three phases of clinical trials, what cost will the drug incur to the patients that use it. Likely it will be a rich person drug.

  34. O M G I learned about monomeric GTPases in my cellular biology class!!! You know, sci show is probably one of the main reasons I’m a bio major 😂 I’ve been watching y’all since I was in middle school and I’m in my 3rd year of college now (looking to pursue graduate education) so thank you!

  35. Are ther more covalent or ionic bonds? This is a question I asked and no one new so I was hoping you would answer plz

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