Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – causes, symptoms, treatment & pathology

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) – causes, symptoms, treatment & pathology

Posttraumatic stress disorder, also called
PTSD, happens when some memory of a past traumatic event—like war or sexual assault—causes
recurrent mental and physical distress. Now the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual
5th edition or the DSM 5 categorizes PTSD as a “trauma-and-stressor-related-disorder”
that happens when the symptoms of an acute stress response persist for over a month. The main symptoms are psychological ones,
for example someone might re-experience their trauma through nightmares, flashbacks, and
intrusive thoughts, but these can lead to behavioral changes as well. Somebody might start to avoid environments
and situations that remind them of their trauma and feel a sense of hypervigilance where they
are constantly on guard or hyperarousal where they have this exaggerated startle response
to the smallest of triggers. Not surprisingly, all of these thoughts and
behaviours can lead to trouble sleeping and general irritability, which can lead to angry
outbursts. Interestingly, this pattern is different for
young children who are less likely to show distress, but instead they might use play
to express their memories, sometimes acting out scenes that trouble them. Whether or not someone develops PTSD in response
to trauma is determined by a number of different factors. For example, it’s clear that interpersonal
trauma, like rape or violent muggings, are more likely to result in PTSD than accidents
or environmental disasters. In addition, people that go through extreme
trauma as children are more likely to develop PTSD in response to other traumas faced in
their adult life. Having said that, if someone manages to develop
effective coping strategies for trauma including having a social support network, then that
can help with future traumas as well. As far as causes go, there are some clues
about biological factors related to development of PTSD. For instance, people with dysfunctions of
the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, deficits in the arousal and sleep-regulating systems
in the brain, and problems with the endogenous opioid system—which helps with pain control—have
all been shown to be at higher risk for developing PTSD. PTSD has also been linked to having a family
history of mood disorders or anxiety disorders. The precise mechanism, though, that ties all
of these relationships together has yet to be worked out. Treatment for PTSD can be kind of complicated,
since people with the disorder are often reluctant to to engage with the trauma in any way—in
their thoughts, emotions, or in conversations, which can make treatment really hard. Research has shown that exposure therapy,
which slowly exposing individuals to situations that cue recall of trauma, can be very effective. Group therapy is also a popular choice for
individuals with PTSD, because it provides survivors with a safe place to relive their
trauma in a supportive environment. In terms of medications, antidepressants,
in particular selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (or SSRIs), can help to reduce
depressive symptoms that often accompany PTSD, and can help minimize flashbacks and nightmares. Anti-anxiety medications can help decrease
the heightened physiological arousal often seen in people with PTSD, and finally sleep-aids
can also be an helpful because lack of sleep and restlessness is such a serious problem
in PTSD. In addition to this, a lot of people with
PTSD self-medicate with alcohol and other substances which can actually worsen their
symptoms and their overall health. So an important treatment consideration for
both therapy and medications, is to help alleviate their symptoms while also safely managing
substance abuse issues. So as a quick recap—PTSD usually happens
after a violent interpersonal trauma and involves recurring thoughts that persist for over a
month, and can be managed with effective coping strategies and medications. Thanks for watching, you can help support
us by donating on patreon, or subscribing to our channel, or telling your friends about
us on social media.


  1. I was physically abused by my father as a kid/adult. Now he stopped abusing me but I see him hitting me in my dreams. Is that PTSD?

  2. Idk if this is PTSD or not But everytime I'll just be normal and all and I'll randomly get a flashback of the past of me getting bullied or like something bad that I don't wanna think about then I'll end up screaming of fear or squealing in fear or hit my head with my hand multiple times or shake my head just trying to get the memory out my head? Idk cause I'm suffering from Maladaptive Daydreaming and I thought maybe it was part of that but then I thought something different between the flashbacks I get.

  3. How to overcome non stop pstd flashbacks? How to stop these intrusive memories from replaying on an endless loop multiple times a day when your doing your best to focus with your regular life. It has become so excessive i literally don't know how to cope there is nothing that works they interfere with every aspect of my life and thoughts. The trauma eats you up even decades later, worsening each day.

  4. I'm not a doctor but I have experienced ptsd for years and was addicted to pain killers. And once I got on methadone I truly feel like it fixes whatever is wrong in my brain

  5. Anyone here who have Ptsd due to living with in laws. Must be common with Asians. (I am Asian BTW)

  6. I was abused by my cousin when I was little I was terrified at him when I was little but it keeps getting worse, I met him again at a family reunion a few months ago and had to go into the bathroom so I could have a breakdown. I just had a dream of my going to my cousins house and sleep in his room- where he would abuse me. I literally paid him money for him to stop hurting me. I’m scared. I don’t want to be here.

  7. I think I had a ptsd episode yesterday. I’m only 16 so Im not sure if it is or not, but when I was a kid my dad used to scream at me, beat me up, publicly humiliate me, etc. yesterday he hit me with an open fist while yelling at me. I took the blow just fine, I didn’t feel it to be honest, but when he left I cried, (nothing unusual I’m not allowed to cry in front of him so I held myself together until I was alone). Then all of a sudden i was a little kid again and I saw and heard my dad screaming at me. All I heard was yelling and crying and screaming and I felt so unsafe. My whole body was alerted. I was stuck in a pencil position but I was shaking. I was staring into my memory and SAW it. I literally saw and heard it like it was 2013 again. I was stuck like that for probably 45seconds and it was one of the scariest experiences I’ve ever had. I was out of it after that. After I stopped crying I was disoriented, confused, and I couldn’t focus on any task that I needed to get done. I kept catching myself staring into my memory and tearing up. I was shaky for a couple hours, my breathing was heavy for the first hour. I’m scared of myself. Typing This and thinking about it makes my heart beat fast, my breathing becomes heavy, and my stomach hurts. I know this is an anxiety disorder, but what if it happens again? What if it happens in public. I just unleashed a part of myself that I didn’t know existed. I’m super scared but I can’t tell a councilor because they’ll call cps. I can’t tell my family because they’ll see my dad as a bad guy, I can’t tell my parents because they’ll say I’m faking it and im weak. Please help me

  8. Im not sure if i have it but i got physically attacked by a group of people like 3 years ago and I'm still not over it, Its kinda hard getting over it since i still live in the same town as the people who attacked me so everytime i see the place where it happend or the people my emotions start getting to much and i just cry, thinking about it makes me feel numb and seeing people who look like them scare me, and i don't go outside for a lot only when i rly have to (like school) , i do know i have major trust issue's but idk if i have ptsd ((pls someone comment))

  9. I have PTSD of exams (i think) and the worst part is i know i am going to have more exams so I'm anxious many times. But something anxiety helps me, it prevents me procrastinating and stuff.

  10. I have ptsd i was diagnosed with it when i was 8 and i still live with it to this day and my friends always scare me and they think its fun and the people with ptsd will now how shit that is

  11. Can emotional/verbal abuse cause PTSD..?
    My mom yells at my siblings and I a lot, and she does because she is stressed, and because we kind of deserve it.. but it makes me avoid doing or saying a lot of things because I'm scared of people getting mad at me, or yelling. And, last time her and her friend screamed at us, I started uncontrollably crying and hyperventilating and it was sort of hard to breathe, so I don't know if that was a panic attack or..
    But yeah I also avoid asking or doing some things around/to her because I'm scared of her getting mad. If someone gets mad (mainly like, yelling mad) at me I tear up/cry (like a normal person) and I'm a child so uh ye sorry if this is weird.. I don't like saying I have PTSD if I haven't been diagnosed with it. I want to go to therapy but i don't want to tell my mom or dad because I'm scared that they are going to get mad that i never talk to them about it, or that i didn't tell them sooner, or they'll say no because it's too expensive.

  12. I have anxiety and was diagnosed with ptsd after a really bad anxiety attack I’ve gotten abused by my brother when I was a kid and my dad it’s not fun

  13. is it considered trauma or just a bad memory?
    —when i was around 6-7, my family travelled to Hawaii. And on one day, I don’t remember which, me and my mom were chilling on the beach, me playing with sand. She said she’d be going for a swim and will be back in 20 minutes. I had no patience and so once I was bored of making my sand castles, and time had seemed to pass. I went on my surfing board and swam to where one other woman was, whomst I asked where my mother was. The woman said she saw my mother, but took me back to shore saying that it was too dangerous for me. There we heard a siren, and the woman asked me where my dad was (he didn’t like the ocean) and then we went to him. My dad went to go investigate the ambulance siren, and the woman brought me to her husband for me to be safe while my dad was gone. We found out my mother was in the ambulance, and she had drowned. We rushed to the hospital, and the doctors said we wouldn’t be able to see her for a few days (my sister and I) because it was too graphic for us.
    It’s been 3 years now. My mom is in a vegetative state and I miss her. I don’t dream much but I do think about her a lot.

    ((English isn’t my first language, sorry!)

  14. Welp now I KNOW I have PTSD, I have had flashbacks for the past year, I got used to them too, there triggered by yelling although jovially triggered but words yelled such as: Dumbass, stupid, and idiot or the phrases: You should know better (communally said to other peeps at my school) or LISTEN TO ME (said extremely loud). My dad gave me these, all of them, I am 12, in the 6th grade, and I am not diagnosed but I strongly believe that I have PTSD, And ADHD, a low level or depression and axianty(it used to be way worse) I USED to cut, I dont now , that's to friends, because of this I am basically immune to insults, because I can always find a funny way to put it, people dont mess with me tho so it makes things a lot easier, I pressure point people if they get on my nerves (I press a point on the body that triggers a nerve thus triggering pain) people have tried to use them back on me but I'm used to the pain because o have a fairly high pain tolerance because of this.

  15. This is just quite offensive to people like me that have PTSD! It hasn’t to be related to violence! Neither lots of us self medicate with alcohol this is just… BS!

  16. (open to all suggestions) Doctors say I have a stress disorder. I have had it for 5 years now. I get dizzy and a presser in my chest. This happens when I am alone or in a new place alone. When im outside, More so when its cold and windy. When I take a shower and when i do not get enough sleep. Because of this I can no longer work. I have taken Meds for it but they seem to make me feel worst. When it happens im often thinking about things like "If something happens to me then no one will be around to help me"

    Is there anyone out there who can relate? Life has been hard but I do get a little better everyday but at a very slow pace. Also when i try to tell someone that im angry I shake like im cold.
    I know it all seems a bit crazy but any help would be awesome.

  17. Just going to say and advice ppl to check out Silva Method. It's a meditation course technique. I am doing it for the last 21 yrs. Did wonders for me.

  18. I have PTSD and I’m trying to cure it by talking to people but sometimes it doesn’t work I got diagnosed with it when I was 12 because someone committed suicide in front of me


  20. I might have PTSD I think this because I saw me mom and brother get beat by my mom's boyfriend. I still see it in my dreams and when I see my mom's EX boyfriend so.

  21. I have PTSD because my brother in law who has intelligence disability kept harassing me when we were living together, and he was trying to touch my tight and I stopped him. So 2 months after I moved out, I was diagnosed with PTSD and I still have now.

    And then I still have to see him during all family gatherings. How scary and torturing is that 😨

  22. I have ptsd because from 3rd grade to 9th grade I had almost no friends, no one to talk to. My parents are very judgemental and crazy helicopter parents so I almost never left home. I figured I was being dramatic and nothing was wrong with me. I went through many years of being the last one picked for anything in class and then the kids arguing over who would be stuck with me. I began to believe I was worthless and a disgusting, embarrassing person and to this day I struggle with these thoughts. Ptsd isn't only for war veterans

  23. A way to temporarily stop your PTSD is punch something really really fast till you don't realize how much time has passed,u didn't got it from me

  24. i need help. i thought i healed but i guess im back to square one again. guys idk but sexual jokes or whwn i hear ppl taking about sex, it triggers me,, i get anxious sweaty and shaking.. this one particular person keeps talking about being good with sex (although not directed at me) and it triggers my childhood trauma.. pls help. idk how to get thru this..

  25. I have all of the behaviour changes that are shown in this video but I don't think I have ptsd and I have these symptoms because I got bullied since I was 8 until I was 12 it was really bad bullying and my personality changed a lot, I was scared of going to the playground that I was bullied at and I didn't want to go out with friends I stayed home all day but I pulled through and if I could do it than so can you stay strong there is always light at the end of the tunnel ❤️

  26. I haven’t been diagnosed, but I noticed once that I reacted pretty badly to one of my friends flipping a card similarly to how I saw a fellow patient in a mental hospital flip a card. This isn’t the only time I got upset or had a panic attack because of something reminding me of that place, but I think it’s the weirdest.

  27. I got diagnose with ptsd 4 years ago and my system came back yesterday😩like I hate this it feels like I’m not here but I’m is crazy😞😭

  28. I have PSTD because I was framed by mad people as a terrorists and on their lies Illuminati terrorists started stalking me and poisoning me repeatedly.

    I was framed as a sex worker despite being deeply religious and celibate all my life and was never able to marry or have a family after coming from a broken home. Having been the deprived child of a single parent in poverty because of not getting any child support, I was deprived ALL OVER AGAIN.

    I was then made to pay for the father who never paid for me and who framed me as a terrorist with his family!

    After all this transgression of boundaries of my safe place, my home and my body which went on for years and after being blamed and defamed and slandered and repeatedly physically tortured, an innocent EXEMPLARY citizen I now have serious PTSD and suffer rage and moods and nightmares after being poisoned repeatedly.

    People will complain about me losing it and say I am unstable but if they had been subjected to kind of horror themselves they might not even be able to survive. To have been exemplary and been framed as evil and demonised is HORRIFIC BETRAYAL and if I lose my temper in private from time to time after all I have been through,. no one can blame me!

  29. I think I have Ptsd my friend told me I get flash backs of memories with the people I've loved and lost I have nightmares about the memories so.. Do u have ptsd?

  30. I have self diagnosed complex PTSD. I am on SSRI meds but they aren't doing enough for me. In fact i feel as if they're making me develop psychosis.

  31. Im watching this video because I am not sure if I have ptsd or its just me overreacting. My father smack me in every part of my body in the age of 5. And I remember the pain, and the begging and calling out for help.
    And Everyday, I got scared if anyone and even my mom smack me with something because I made a mistake.
    (because in my culture, If A child did not obey or did a mistake or being naughty is result to spanking by their parents). And she did, she did smack me with a hanger or anything around her to me. (Because I Wake up a little late for school because im having trouble sleeping Last night) and calling me “lazy” And any hurtful words that can heavy my shoulders.

    And Im scared of A small physical Contact, like being Hugged by my friends or my friends holding my hand or even a handshake.

    And gosh, Yesterday. My seatmate is being so goddamn annoying that I Burst out my anger at him by smacking my notebook on his head so hard.

  32. I'm 16. I always felt like I was depressed and had suicidal thoughts for a long time without any big reason. I've had a good family and normal childhood without bullying. My younger brother's birth however made me feel all the attention I had was gone. Thus was when I was 5 years old. Since then, I remember craving for love even though I have it. My friends became my world and I loved one a lot. She promised to help me get over my insecurities and be with me but I soon realized she was habitual of lying. Her lies increased, so did my pain and feelings of inferiority. I was manipulated into thinking it was all my fault. I started self harm and had suicidal thoughts. Eventually, she left me in a dark spot, for another friend because apparently she was tired of me. Our entire class knew about these things and her being the popular girl she was, made her an angel in most eyes. All the friends that I had left as they preferred supporting her without even knowing the whole story. I was bullied by her new friend (whom I once opened up to and she mocked me and backbitched, telling all my feelings to her social circle). Although I have new friends now and I'm better, it's very hard for me to go to school and not feel emotionally drained in their presence. I still get nightmares of her leaving me and me being laughed at. I sleep for 12+hours and always feel isolated and fear being betrayed again. I always loved darkness but now I feel like someone will hurt me. I sometimes have sleep paralysis too. I'm fine but I get sudden breakdowns at night sometimes as I cry myself to sleep, stoll questioning if I was wrong or not. It might seem like a small reason to feel so bad but for me, she was my entire world. The definition of love. It's been 2 years since things ended between us but I'm still traumatized. Is it possible that I have ptsd?

  33. I don't know if this is PTSD but tell me if it is or not. So one time it was about 6 am and I was up because I had to go see my then friends, as I was on my bed petting my cat, a truck like noise was heard, as I heard that I thought it was just a truck, but the noise slowly came closer and closer, turns out it was an earthquake that I was hearing, now every time I hear a truck when I'm in my house, I think it's an earthquake so I stop what I'm doing to see if it is one. It's really frustrating. Please tell me if this is PTSD

  34. My 13-year-old stopped acting like a kid after a traumatizing experience. She acts more like a person in her late teens or early adulthood., Does her PTSD have anything to do with this?

  35. I’m only 16 and I have PTSD
    Because I been bullied and made fun of back then in elementary and middle school and getting into a school fight and me being adopted so it’s been a lot I been through and that’s why I’m not social because I’m scared what people are going to say to me because of the past

  36. Am I the only one ( sexual abused) who can still actually feel what happened? For me, it's always triggered by touching someone of the opposite gender, or even the slightest thought of it.

  37. I need help, if I tried to kill myself a while ago and I’m starting to constantly remembering that day over and over again after my parents divorce. This has been going on for about 2.5
    Months. Do I have PTSD?

  38. I spend 95% of my waking hours in my peripheral vision. When at work I feel on high alert; a small portion of my attention is on my work, most of my attention is indirectly on the movement of people around me or I develop a focal point and have a hard time taking my eyes off of it. Nearly all day, every day. I did not experience this until an experience with sexual assault and honestly feel like I am the only one who experiences such strange symptoms. I don't know if this is PTSD but it has been getting progressively worse and it is exhausting.

  39. My mother just got engaged to someone with ptsd I I don’t think it’s a big deal but if y’all have any ideas (like if I should just ignore it because it’s normal or treat him diffrent than other people I just don’t want to make him feel different because he is not

  40. PTSD can be caused by experiencing traumatic events. I'm a Vietnam Veteran, and my case of PTSD is considered to be moderate and chronic. The chronic part means it will never go away.
    I experienced severe depression and acute anxiety when I was in my early 20s. Nightmares, flashbacks, and intrusive thoughts. My attitude was that I thought I was the toughest guy in the world, and I don't need anyone's help. I'll deal with this on my own. After 30 years, I finally went to the VA and asked for help. I received therapy and medication for PTSD, and it did seem to help somewhat. My only regret is that I wish I had done this sooner. It's been 50 years since I returned home from Vietnam, and I don't think about Vietnam much anymore. Along with the medication, I have learned to manage the symptoms of PTSD better than when I was younger. I can still become anxious at times, but I haven't felt depressed for several years. I rarely have nightmares, and I haven't had a flashback for awhile. My quality of life has improved dramatically. Time has a way of healing to a certain extent. My memories of those awful events I saw happen have faded, and I'm not being tormented by those experiences anymore. I may remember something happening, but I can't "see" the event anymore.

    Don't ever allow anyone to tell you that you are a wimp for admitting you have some kind of problem. It takes courage to deal with some kind of problem you are having. I have a magnetic refrigerator sticker that the VA gave to me, and it states: It takes the courage and strength of a warrior to ask for help. Don't try to be the Lone Ranger. Asking for help is the first step on the road to your recovery.

  41. I really hate when people is making fun of depression, and says that they have it, and anxiety… it’s a horrible mental illness that you shouldn’t make fun of. I have PTSD after watching my brother get struck by 25.000 volt power, and my life is basically ruined. I think… I just wanted to tell people that they’re not alone, and we should all stick together.

  42. I went through a very traumatic experience with a family member with drugs (we didn't know she was doing them) and I got into this argument with this boy I don't get along with and he kept repeating I was "on something" and that made me remember the event and I had a whole anger out burst and I ended up getting into a fight with him.

  43. This guys voice gave me ptsd his voice is literally disgusting and makes me cringe. I’m a gay man and sound much more manly than that

  44. I've had this for 31 years ever since I was viciously assaulted by a gang of drunken teenagers when I was 14. Back then, mental health problems and support wasn't as it is now, more like it was viewed with a huge stigma attached. Anyway, I had no help and for 5 years the fear and anger worsened until I found alcohol. Alcohol then became a huge problem as well and it seriously messed my life up and nearly killed me. Fortunately I got sober just over 10 years ago but I still have this which I have to take medication for, as well as doing a few other things like eating properly and exercising. To this day, even with the medication, I'm still a bit nervous around drunk people but I largely avoid them. Overall, the last 31 years hasn't been very good, except for a few things I've managed to do whilst recovering from my drinking problem.

  45. I just got mugged and have been very upset the whole time. I can't think of anything else and although it was my friends who mugged me, it hit me by shock. I am really in stress

  46. My mother abused me phisicaly and mentaly and sometimes I dream that she would yell at me and beat me and I would get pale. I don't think I have any trouble sleeping but I sometimes get flashbacks of my worst moments and when she isn't a monster I avoid makeing phisical contact with her. And one time she beated me up and realized I was hyperventilateing and had to give me anty anxiety pils. What do you think? Do I have PTSD?

  47. I was in a car wreck that almost killed me.. my depression and anxiety.. with my PTSD from the wreck caused me to wish that the wreck actually kill me…

    Edit : All my heartbreaks and the wreck developed my PTSD also..

  48. I was wondering if that's possible that PTSD and C-PTSD can last for years ? like over 10 years or so, is it still called PTSD ?
    And is it possible that we start to experience new PTSD also a very long time after the traumatic events ? As if nothing has ever been processed and it comes out years later and result with intrusive thoughts/flashbacks/nightmares and strong responses to similar situations

  49. Blue Bunny, I don't think this is a good video on PTSD. I have a bad feeling about this one. I believe there's other better ones. I think this video sucks. I've seen better ones. Avoid this one.


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