Protective Factors and Addiction

Protective Factors and Addiction


– Hello, and welcome
to the next webinar in the series on opioid
abuse and addiction from Strengthening
the Heartland. We’re really happy
to have you here and before we get started and I introduce our
speaker for today, I have a couple of reminders
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that information with other people please
feel free to do so. And with that, I’m
going to turn it over to our speaker for
today, Amber Leafstedt. And she’s gonna talk about
protective factors today. This was actually a topic
requested by some of our viewers who were interested in maybe
a little bit more of that prevention side of opioid
misuse and addiction as well. So welcome, Amber. I’ll let you take it away. – Thank you, Dr. Letcher. I’m gonna be the speaker today. My name is Amber Leafstedt. I am a licensed
Addiction Counselor. I’ve done some
webinars in the past and, as Dr. Letcher said, this kind of getting
a little bit more information about protective
factors kind of stemmed from touching briefly
on it when we talked about adolescents and addiction. I have worked probably
about six years in the field of addiction,
both at the inpatient level, as well as the outpatient level. And so hopefully,
I can give you guys some useful information
today in regards to this. So, looking at kinda what’s
on the agenda for today. So in previous webinars
kind of talked about what addiction is, but
I think it’s always helpful to kind of go back and remember some of those facts and kind of what
this disease is. Also going to kind of look
at what affects whether or not someone becomes addicted, because I think that’s always
helpful information to know, especially when we’re looking
at prevention or protection. And then, as well as looking
at protective factors, we’re also gonna look
at what puts us at risk. So, kind of looking
at the risk factors, but as well as what
protective factors can give us some resiliency in
order to kind of, hopefully, avoid having struggles with
addiction or substance abuse. So to get started just gonna
kind of watch a brief video that kind of goes into a review
of kind of what addiction is and give us kind of a
nice base to start off kind of this conversation. So I’m gonna switch real quick. – [Narrator] What is addiction? It’s also called a
substance use disorder. Over 20 million people. – [Narrator] Nationwide
suffer from addiction. – It’s good. – [Narrator] One in seven
people will experience addiction at some point in their life. Scientists first began
to understand addiction as a brain disorder
back in the 1950s. Drs. Olds and Milner in
laboratory studies of rats found the parts of the
brain affected by addiction. But then in 1994 Drs.
Volkow and Schelbert, top neuroscientists, ran
PET scans of the brain that showed the effects of
substance use disorders. And like other diseases, these scans showed it
affected tissue function. So there are two main
parts of the brain affected by drug use, the
Limbic system and the Cortex. The limbic system located
deep within the brain is responsible for our
basic survival instincts. So when we do essential
things to stay alive, like eat, drink, find
shelter, build relationships or care for your young, your
brain reinforces behaviors that cause the release of
dopamine from this region. That reward for surviving
is also transmitted to the amygdala and hippocampus
which records the memory of that feeling
so we seek it again. This is our survival hardwiring. Addiction also affects
this area up here. That’s the pre-frontal cortex which is what separates
us from other animals. And this is where
decision-making and
impulse control live. When drugs or alcohol are used, they activate the very
same dopamine process in the survival center. And when use is
repeated that substance can hijack that
part of the brain. This hijacker changes the
brain and weakens this system to make it believe that the
primary need for survival is the drug. In hijacking the brain, it can usurp those primary
motivation; food, water, shelter, relationships
and protecting our young. And the hijacker needs more
and more of the substance to activate the same level of
reward or feeling of pleasure causing the brain tissue to
become increasingly damaged with continued drug use. So why don’t all
people who use alcohol or drugs become addicted? There are factors that
contribute to the development of a substance use disorder. They include individual
factors like your genes, your age of exposure. And then environment factors
like drug availability. But there is good news. Addiction is preventable. Key factors that aid
in preventing addiction can be categorized
into two parts; risk factors and
protective factors. Protective factors range
from parental involvement, programs that
improve self-control,
limiting availability and increasing attachment
to your community. Another key element in
preventing substance
use disorders is to delay when use begins. Put simply, prevention
is about delaying the onset of first use. In the adolescent brain, where brain tissue
is more vulnerable, the hijacker is more
prone to weaken the brain and plant itself as a disease. Those with substance use
disorders commonly initiate first use much earlier
between 12 and 18 years old which increases the likelihood
of the hijacker taking hold. But if the hijacker
does take hold, addiction is treatable. Advancements have been
made in assessments, treatment programs,
recovery supports and medications to
treat addiction. Brain scans show that
once in recovery, the tissue in the limbic system and cortex can get better. With your help, we can
expand these innovations to help millions of
individuals and families and ensure that
addiction is treated as the medical issue that it is. Together we can solve this. So as the video talked about, it touched on a couple
of different things. And so one thing that
I do wanna emphasize is that all the information that we’re gonna be
talking about today, is based out of the concept
of addiction being a disease. It’s also going to be
kind of a biopsychosocial look at addiction as well. There are other views
of addiction but
this is the medical, biological disease
concept of addiction that we’re gonna
be talking about. As well as it touched on
factors of kind of those factors that take part of whether or
not somebody becomes addicted. And one of the things is looking at addiction as a
lifestyle disease. So other lifestyle
diseases include heart disease or
Type 2 Diabetes. And it’s a combination
of a few things that determine whether or not somebody gets
a lifestyle disease. So it’s biology. So as the video mentioned, a hereditary kind
of predisposition to said disease and
then our choices or environmental factors
are those different things that we have a little
bit of control over, but the thing we don’t have
control over is our biology. And so our biology and
our choices come together and ultimately
equal the outcome. And so, looking at
some of those things. And some of the things the
video touched on we’re going to go a little bit more in-depth
about and talk about, such as the individual
factors, environmental factors. We’re gonna dive a little
bit more deeply into those. Whoops, all right,
let’s pause that. Okay, so bringing it together. So basically
research has shown us that the risk for substance
abuse and use disorders and other adverse behaviors
basically increases with the number of risk
factors that are there. So the more risk factors we
have, the higher our risk is. But we also know that protective
factors can reduce the risk individuals have,
especially for youth, in engaging in things
like substance use and other such behaviors. So again, to emphasize, there are factors
that we can control versus factors that
we cannot control. So as we go through
and we talk about these different factors,
kind of thinking about that. Is that something that
I have the ability to kind of enhance
that protective factor or decrease that risk factor? And that’s a big thing
as both individuals, as families, as
communities and agencies that we need to look at when
we’re thinking about prevention is what aspect of these
factors can we kind of have a influence over to either
increase or decrease. ‘Cause we can’t decrease whether or not somebody has family
members who are addicted. But we can increase
their resiliency. We can increase
kind of the support and things that they receive and kind of removal
of that access and accessibility of drugs. So kind of looking
at those factors. As well as, I know
the presentation is called Protective
Factors and Addiction but we are gonna be
talking about risk factors. And that’s because it’s
important for us to understand risk factors in order
for us to understand protective factors, as well as, kind of why they are
protective factors. What are they looking to reduce? What are we looking to
enhance versus have present? So, looking at these things. Okay, so as we go through
these different risk factors and protective factors
we’re gonna be looking at it through a couple of
different lenses. The first lens that
we’re gonna look at it through is developmental stages. So the risk factors
that exist for infancy or early childhood are not
gonna be the same risk factors and protective factors that
are gonna be as affective or as detrimental as the ones that are for like
young adulthood. So it’s really important for
us to look at these different stages in order to kind
of really understand what the risks are,
what protective factors should we be focusing on and what kind of warning signs
should we be looking out for. The other area as the
video talked about, it really focused
in on kind of those individual factors and
environmental factors. We’re gonna kind of look at it
through a couple of different lenses that are similar
but a little bit different. So first, we’re gonna look
at individual factors. So factors within the individual that put them at risk
or are protective. Family factors, so this
includes caregivers. This includes overall family. And then school
peers and community which can be seen as more
environmental but also isn’t it has a little bit more
of a personal thing to it when we’re talking
about peers and social. The social aspect
of some factors. So overall this is
how we are going to be kind of breaking down
all of these kind of risk and protective factors. Okay, so the first area
that we are gonna talk about and look at for these
factors are infancy and early childhood. And so this is really
looking at ages from birth to like
about 12 years old. And I know it seems like
that’s a lot of years to kind of clump together
but a lot of the different stuff that affect these age
ranges are very similar. It does change a little bit
as we kind of move through the years, but a lot of
them remain the same. So one way that it
remains the same is that one of the most
important kind of factors or area of factors as we
said the individual family, school, peer,
community, is family. So the caregiver
in this age range, in this developmental stage
the caregiver in the family are going to be the most
influential factors for this whether it’s risk or protective. And so some things
to keep in mind if you have any aware of kind
of developmental stage models. Kind of that Erikson’s
Stage Model of like looking for that
trust, mistrust. We’re looking for
attachments, right, and kind of the autonomy
and shame and doubt. And so kind of looking
at all those things and remembering that there’s
a lot of stuff going on as we develop whether
it’s physical development, cognitive development,
emotional/social development. All of those things
are playing a role and that’s where like the
biopsychosocial viewpoint of addiction comes in is that there are so many
different factors that influence us
as human beings. And so it’s important to
remember all of those. So, so what are some
of the risk factors? So individual risk factors might
be a difficult temperament. So this is young children who have a difficult
time regulating. Children who have
a difficult time getting along with others,
just overall that temperament. Again, emphasize if a child
has a difficult temperament that does not mean that they
will ultimately become addicted or have problem behaviors. It simply means that is a risk. And it’s kind of like
a little red flag, to let us know, okay
maybe we need to enhance some things for some
protective factors. And so then looking at that
primary area of factors that we really need to pay
attention to is the family. So one of the risk
factors is having a cold and unresponsive
behavior from the mother. So early in our lives our caregivers are our primary source of security, of
our safety, of our needs. And so when we have that
cold and unresponsive kind of care going on from
our primary caregiver, it can have detrimental
effects on us and our psychology and
everything going forward. And then parental modeling
of alcohol and drug abuse. So if our parents
are using around us, even as small children, that’s
gonna have an affect on us. It kind of starts off that norm. That this is something
that normally happens. And it is also very
unlikely that if our parents are using substances
that we’re getting adequately taken care of. Just because as we
talk about addiction it takes over your life. As that video mentioned,
taking care of our house, taking care of our
young, eating, sleeping, all of that stuff stops
being as important to us. And so for children in this
age range or in this area, if their parents are
using it’s unlikely that they are getting
that treatment that they need and
deserve and that safety. Then, school, peers
and community. I don’t have much listed
here ’cause, again, the adults in their lives and
the caregivers are kind of the most important
factors going on. But that’s not to say that these other areas aren’t
going to impact them. So if there’s violence
in their community, if there’s not any safety as they kind of get
into school age. If they’re having a
hard time getting along with other children you know when they get into
elementary school. All of those things are
going to be impacting them. But, once again, we’re kind
of emphasizing that family and that caregiver role as
being one of the most indicative risk factors going on at
this developmental stage. Okay, so protective factors. So now that we kind of
have an understanding of some of the risk factors
that can be going on and things that we
need to know about, so how do we handle it? How do we enhance resiliency? How do we address these things? So some protective factors
that will assist are things like teaching children
self-regulation. Right, so that is not something
that children naturally have their ability to calm back
down once they become upset. How to regulate their
behaviors like, you know, not pushing their friends or biting other children
and stuff like that. Those are things that
we have to teach. And so, we can enhance
their resiliency and put some protective
factors in place if we can help them learn
that self-regulation. Having secure attachment
with their caregivers and having secure attachment
in general leads to safety and feeling loved
and feeling secure. When we have anxious
or detached attachments it causes further
difficulties for that child. Mastery of communication
and language skills, again, these are not skills that they normally just
automatically have. Yes, all children kind of
learn to start to speak and how to communicate
but they learn it from us. They learn it from the adults. They learn it from the
caregivers in their lives and the key point here
is mastery, right. So we don’t want them
to just learn to talk. We want them to learn
how to communicate. We want them to be
able to use their words and move beyond kind
of the behaviorism way of getting their needs met. We want them to be
able to communicate. And their ability to
make friends and get
along with others. Again, that temperament. So are we teaching our kids
the skills needed to get along, to regulate, to interact with
others in meaningful ways and in positive ways? And you will notice that
will carry on throughout the other developmental stages. So families, so having
reliable support and discipline from caregivers. So again, reliable. We’re having both support
as well as discipline. So it’s a balance of both. Having responsiveness, their
needs are getting met, right. When they need something,
when they’re hurt, when they’re happy, when
they’re all of the above there’s responsiveness
from family. There’s responsiveness
from the caretakers. Being protected
from harm and fear. Now, obviously we can’t protect
children from everything and, once again, we
want it to be a balance. They need to have experience. They need to meet other
children and learn these skills, but we also need to
protect them from things that might do them harm
or cause irreparable harm. So things like adverse
childhood experiences, right. So we don’t want
them to be abused. We don’t want them to you
know be harmed in those ways. And then providing, or being given opportunities
to resolve conflict. As parents it might seem easier or as caregivers it
might seem easier to just avoid conflict, jump
in, solve it for them. We don’t want them to fight. We don’t want them to be upset. But it is also really
important, again, for these children to learn how to resolve conflict
in good ways, right. And so that goes along with being able to get
along with others. Children are gonna
run into conflict. As adults we run into conflict and being able to learn
those skills to become able to resolve that
conflict on their own. Now as children we’re probably
gonna be helping them a lot but once again, foundation
blocks for later in life. So this next one is not
always possible for families, but having adequate
socialeconomic resources for the family. So there are various
reasons why a family might not have that or
might struggle to provide that for the children or for the individuals
in their family. And so, while it’s not
always possible to have that, one thing that we can look
at for prevention measures is having resources available and finding ways to ensure that others
can achieve that and can work towards that
and have the supports and are aware of what resources
are available for them to work towards getting
the adequate resources that their family needs. So that they’re fed, they
have a safe place to sleep. They have food, they have
water, they have clothes, they have jackets when
it’s wintertime, right. So all of these things,
having those basic needs being able to be
met is important. And then school,
peer and community. So they are given support
for early learning. So while their
brains are, you know, they’re learning languages and they’re learning skills and basically there’s
support there for that and access, right. So being being able to
get into Pre-K learning and Pre-K programs and
then being available to everybody regardless
of socialeconomic status. Access to supplemental
services, again, for food, for seeing, for
hearing, for everything, they have the access to the
services that they need. Having secure and
stable attachments, not only to parents but
also to childcare providers. So in our society right now,
our children go to daycare, our children go to Head Starts. They’re not always in our
home and so it is important for them to also
have that attachment with whatever care
provider they are going to. Now, that also ties
into the next part, which is a low ratio of
caregivers to children. So, at this age range especially
early on in their life, they’re trying to
get that attachment and so the more change,
the more caregivers that are thrown in the mix, the more difficult
it is for them to kind of develop
that attachment. We wanna make sure when
they’re going to daycare that it’s not an anxious
situation for them, exceedingly so. Children are gonna be
anxious when they are away from their caregivers, but
again, it’s the exceedingly so. Or kind of the dysregulation
that might happen. So regulatory systems that
support high quality of care. So, once again, access to
high-quality childcare, right. So we know when our children
go somewhere that it’s good and everybody has
access to that. So again, as we look at
these protective factors there are certain
things as an individual that I can change and
I have control over. There are other things that it’s gonna take
a lot of coordination and coming together and as communities in
order to achieve that. I alone cannot make sure that
there’s always quality care, but as a community
or as agencies that we can work
towards achieving that. Okay, so as we move
out of early childhood, we come into kind of
that middle school age of kind of that 12
to 14 age range. So, a big shift that we are
starting to see happen here is we are moving from the
most factors being family and caregivers to our
peer and social group. So these are gonna be taking
a little bit more of kind of that front and
center of the factors that are impacting
them the heaviest. So there’s some major stuff
that is happening here as well. We’re kind of moving to that
identity versus role confusion where I’m really trying
to figure out who I am. I’m trying to
figure out my place, I’m trying to kind of
look towards autonomy and achieving those things. As well as brain development. There are a lot of transitions
that happen during this time. We have puberty, we have
developmental and brain changes. So some of the cognitive changes that they’re going
to be seeing is that they are gonna
be able to start thinking about possibilities. They’re gonna be able to
start connecting ideas. The way in which they
think begins to change. It is also notable that
during the early adolescence the pre-frontal
cortex of the brain does not develop as fast as
other regions of the brain. And this is important because
this area of the brain is used for things such as
decision-making, planning and all of those things
and impulse control. Which as we get into talking
about these risk factors those are all things
that are notable. And so the fact
of the matter is, is these risk factors,
these kids at this age range are already kind of
at a disadvantage because that area of their
brain is quite fully online yet. And so it kind of
emphasizes the need to have promotion
of these things but also teaching
children these skills so that they can use them. Okay, so individual factors for
middle school age range are things like,
poor impulse control. Again, if we think about
the brain development that area of the brain
isn’t exactly online. So it’s normal
for this age range to have a bit of difficulty
with impulse control. But it’s again, we’re looking
at kind of those extremes. So is there a extraordinary
difficulty with impulse control? And so, looking at adolescents who have
low harm avoidance. So are they constantly putting themselves in high
risk situations, right? That’s just naturally going
to put them at a higher risk ’cause they’re less
likely to avoid situations or things that they
know were harmful. Such as substance use. Sensations seeking, so again, if we think about the
areas of the brain that addiction affects
they’re our limbic system, our reward centers, our
pleasure centers of our brain. So if I’m an individual
who responds more readily to that kind of reward and
those sensations, right, that’s gonna put me more at
risk ’cause if it’s something that kind of activates
that area in my brain, I’m gonna seek that out. And so that’s what
substances can do for people. And so it an cause them to
seek out things such as that. And so lack of behavioral
and self-control regulations. So again, we’re back to that
kind of temperament stuff that this carrying on
through early childhood is my ability to
regulate myself. Regulate my emotions,
regulate my behaviors, all of these things are
factors that I need to look at. That might put me
at a disadvantage or
at an increased risk for certain behaviors
such as substance use. Aggressiveness,
anxiety, depression,
ADHD or hyperactivity all of these things
also enhance my risk. Again, just because a
child has these things does not mean that they will
ultimately become addicted. It simply means that they
are at a higher risk. Kind of the emergence
of anti-social behavior, I’m not following rules. I don’t wanna follow rules. I have no respect for the rules. I kind of am very
self-focused, right. Those are some risk factors. Having early persistent
behavioral problems. So my behavioral problems
may be from early childhood continue to persist through
this middle school range. And they’re not
really going away. And then, again, early
substance use relating back to that video, the longer we
can delay that first onset of use, the more protected
that individual’s gonna be. So when we have early
use between these ages, that’s the higher risk
and as the video noted, for people who become addicted
most often it’s normally between that 12 to 18 range that they first
tried substances. So family, once again, is
kind of moving away from that top spot, but family
risk factors are still there and they’re still
playing a role. So things are like
permissive parenting. So I’m not really
setting boundaries. I’m not really kind of
putting in expectations, I’m just kind of letting
things go the way they go. That’s gonna cause
some problems. Having a lot of
parent-child conflict, those types of things can be
very difficult for children and difficult for families
and can kind of be a risk. So not really having
any supervision or monitoring of the child. Just kind of, once again, that
permissive parenting style. Having low parental
warmth kinda, once again, that attachment. So having that kind of cold and unresponsive response
from their parents. Inconsistent discipline,
so not really knowing when or if I’m gonna get disciplined and then also the
type of discipline. Is is hostile? Is it harsh? Is it unreasonable to whatever
they’re being punished for? So again, having consistency or inconsistency
puts them at risk. So not really having
any aspirations or kind of drive for the child. Not pushing them or challenging
them to kind of rise to any sort of expectations. Now again, that’s having
reasonable expectations, ’cause we don’t wanna have
unreasonable expectations as well of the child. Substance use among parents and their siblings is
going to put them at risk. As well as, parents and
siblings having favorable attitudes toward
alcohol and drugs. ‘Cause if my family is using,
they think using’s okay, they kind of promote using,
the likelihood of me not using is very low unless there
are gonna be other enhanced protective factors that are
gonna kind of be put in place. ‘Cause it’s normed, its what
I see, it’s what I know, it’s what I’ve been taught and so, those really
put me at risk. So school, peers and community,
again emphasizing peers are becoming the most
important kind of group in their life at this point. So school failure and
low commitment to school. So at this age range
I’m spending most
of my time in school and if I don’t have
a lot of commitment, if I’m not being able to
succeed it can lead to things such as negative emotionality and things like that or
low commitment in school. Having accessibility
and availability of
drugs and alcohol. So it’s around me,
have access to it. That increases my
risk of doing it. Peer rejection, again following
through from early childhood unto middle school is that
ability to make friends. That ability to affectively
interact with other people, my temperament, right. So if I am unable to
kind of master that, I’m going to experience
more peer rejection kinda at this stage. And if peers are becoming one
of the most important parts of my life and I have
the inability to connect with that group, that’s
going to adversely affect me. Are my laws and norms in
my society or in my state, in my town, favorable
towards use? Now, that’s not to say, that
just because alcohol is legal that I’m automatically at risk, but it does kind of
how it’s promoted. Is binge drinking promoted? Is abuse of these
things promoted? Kind of those norms and
those societal things that are influencing me. Having a deviant peer group,
do I have a peer group that is low-harm avoidance? Are they constantly
sensation seeking? Are they promoting
substance use? Are they promoting other
high risk behaviors? I like to tell some of
the people that I see if you sit at a bar long enough
you’re gonna order a drink. If you hang out with kids,
if you hang out with peers who are doing
something long enough you’re probably gonna do
that exact same thing, ’cause we wanna fit in. We want to feel as if we belong and if everybody is doing
that I might start thinking, well, everybody’s doing it. I might as well do it, too. And so kind of that peer
group that I’m around is going to have a
major impact on me. Again, peer attitude
towards drugs. And then interpersonal
alienation, am I feeling connected
to my community, to my friends, to my family, to a church group,
to my culture? Am I feeling that
connection and when I’m not, that puts me at a risk. And then extreme poverty,
the lack of resources. The inability to get my
needs met is going to put me at higher risk than somebody
who’s needs are being met. And it kind of notes here
especially, for children who have anti-social
kind of behaviors and thinking patterns going on. ‘Cause I’m more likely to
engage in illegal activities in order to get my needs met, rather than finding other
ways to get them met. So that’s kind of
how those two tie in. Okay, so moving from middle
school age into adolescence. So this is like that
high school age range from like 14, 15 to 18, 19. So, oh, wait, no, I
am on the wrong slide. I’m talking about the
slide ahead of me. Protective factors, let’s
talk about protective factors. I am skipping ahead. So individual stuff,
mastery of academic skills. So my ability to
do well in school. Again, this is taking up
a large part of my life. And so the ability
to kind of master and do well in these things. I’m following rules and
norms of behavior at home, at school, in public, right. I am kind of meeting
those expectations. Now, that’s not to say that
children shouldn’t be unique and children shouldn’t kind
of challenge maybe some norms that need to be challenged. But it’s the way in which
that they are challenged and that is notable. There are always
gonna be gray areas. And so when children are
wanting to go against certain social norms, it
doesn’t automatically mean that this is what
we’re talking about. Again, gray areas. The ability to make good friends and have a good
peer group relation. So again, this importance of
peer group and my temperament and my ability to get
along with others. So I’m having, family, I’m having consistent
discipline, right. And the discipline I receive
at this point in my life should be language-based
not physical-based. And honestly, at
other stages of life, it should really both
that as well, right. We need to be able to
communicate and to talk and to understand versus any
sort of physical discipline that might occur. Having extended family
support, so again, I have those
connections not only with my caregivers in
my immediate family but my extended family, as well. I have a network, if you
will, of that support. Having healthy peer groups, so for school,
peer, and community. Having healthy peer groups, so my peer group engages
in healthy behaviors whether that’s clubs,
activities, following the rules, we’re not engaging in high risk,
kind of negative behaviors. School engagement, so
I’m engaged in school, whether that’s through sports, as well as, having positive
teacher relationships. So here are some things
that as an individual I might not necessarily
have control over, but those are things like
effective classroom management. So those things can
come in the form of having reasonable
classroom sizes, right. So having enough time for a
teacher to individual time so that they can help enhance those student’s ability to master their academic skills. This ties into kind of having
high academic standards. So the importance of
challenging our students and wanting our students
to meet these standards. But at the same time, we need
to have resources for them. We need to have
supports for them. We need to give them
the skills, the tools, the time, the support in
order to achieve those things. If we have these high
academic standards, yet we do not give
them any resources in order to achieve them, we are setting them
up for failure. ‘Cause again, one of
those risk factors is failure in school,
low commitment to school. If I’m not having resources, if I’m feeling as
if I can’t achieve, I’m spinning my wheels,
there’s nothing I can do, my commitment to school is
gonna drop exponentially. And so being able to,
yes, have those standards, yes have that promotion
of wanting them to
succeed at school but also giving
them the resources and making sure we
have an environment in which they can
achieve those things. And then school polices and
practices to reduce bullying. As we get into talking about
adolescents having a physical and psychological safety
is an important thing. So especially at this
age range, having polices and practices that effectively
address and handle bullying, as well as, just overall
safety is important. Okay, now back to that
slide that I kind of already talked about that we
weren’t quite at yet. Adolescence, so again, that
same age range that I noted. Peers continue to
be a important, notable area of their life. Erikson’s identity
continues to be, Erikson’s developmental stages
continue to be the identity versus role confusion and
still trying to achieve that. Of note, here though, is as
we move into this adolescence stage we’re going to be
starting moving more towards that autonomy and independence. It’s gonna be becoming more
and more important at this time and one big factor
here, is accessibility. How accessible and available
are drugs or alcohol to me? Okay so some of the
risk factors here, behavioral disengagement
coping is an individual factor. So this is means of coping
of disengagement, right. So I am isolating, I’m escaping. I don’t wanna face
these things head on. And that type of coping
can be very dangerous ’cause it can lead into
the use of substances. I don’t wanna feel sad so
I’m gonna use a substance to make myself feel
a different way. And so that type of coping
can be very dangerous. Negative emotionality, I
feel negative about myself. I feel negative about
the things around me and just overall kind of just
that negative state of being. Conduct disorder, again,
I’m not following rules. I don’t wanna meet
expectations, very challenging. Kind of that rebelliousness
coming in negative ways, right. Rebelliousness in and of itself doesn’t have to be a negative
characteristic or feature. But it’s the way in
which it is occurring. So having myself having
variable attitudes towards alcohol or drugs. If I look at them in
a favorable light, I’m more likely to be
open to trying them or being around those
who are using them which, again puts me at risk. So early substance use, again, delay of use is gonna
be the biggest factor that can be protective for me. And continued
anti-social behavior. Family, so substance
use among my parents continues to be a
very big factor. Lack of adult supervision, I’m
not really being monitored. There’s no sort of expectation or boundaries being
put in place for me. I’m just kind of having
rule of the roost. I kinda get to go
do whatever I want. Poor attachment with parents. So yes, while peers
continue to be an important aspect of my life, it
is important for family and parent relationships
to remain strong. And so when I have
that poor attachment with my parents that
puts me at risk. School, peer, and community. So school failure and
low commitment to school continue to be a high
risk thing for them. ‘Cause once again, I’m
still continuing to spend most of my time at school and so if I’m not engaged,
that puts me at risk. So my continued association
with peers who use drugs and alcohol is going
to put me at risk. Aggression towards peers. So my ability to get along
well with others and cooperate. Norms in my society, so norms that are favorable
towards alcohol use or drug use. So thing like
advertisements, social media, those types of things. And then my accessibility
and availability, how accessible is it? How easily, readily
can I get this thing? Okay, so for protective factors. For individual, positive
physical development. So I’m able to, I’m
hitting my milestones, I’m developing as I
should, as well as, how I feel about myself. How I actually feel about me. Having a high self-esteem. Enjoying who I am as a person. So having emotional
self-regulation. There’s a lot of emotions
that go on in adolescence and so being able to regulate
those emotions effectively. Having good coping skills
and problem-solving skills rather than that behavioral
disengagement coping, right. I’m able to cope and face kind
of what’s going on head on and regulate what’s
going on with me. Having engagement and
connections in two or more of the following
context; at school, with peers, in athletics, employment,
religion or culture. Okay, so developing
these connections. I feel connected to my society. I feel connected
to my community. I feel connected to my family. I feel connected
to what I am doing. There’s a connection
there, right. I don’t have that interpersonal
isolation going on. So my family, so my
family’s providing structure and limits, rules,
monitoring, right. And it’s predictable,
right, so it’s consistent. I’m never having to question. I’m never having
to guess, right. And I can’t push
those boundaries. Those boundaries are there. Having supportive relationships
with my family members. They’re there for me. They support me. I have that connect, I
have that attachment, that love, that safety there. And then I have clear
expectations set for me. I know what the behaviors
are expected of me, I know where the limits are. I know what the
values are, right. Those are clear to me. For school, peer and
communities, so having mentors and supporters who can
help enhance my skills, help teach me, help guide me. I have those important
role models in my life. Engagement at school and
engagement with sports or activities is
promoted, right. And I’m offered plenty
of opportunities
to do those things. Positive norms,
so this also means that we have an open
discussion with children and with young adults
about alcohol and drugs, ’cause the fact
of the matter is, they’re gonna be
exposed to it, right. So we’re being
taught positive norms or being taught realistic norms
rather than negative ones. Once again, having clear
expectations set for me and then physical and
psychological safety. Kind of going back
to that bullying, I know I’m safe. My physical safety is ensured, my psychological
safety is ensured. Okay, so young adulthood. We are now moving from
childhood into young adulthood. This is kind of that
college age range, late high school age range as
we’re moving into adulthood. So peer and social
factors continue to play an important role,
however, individual factors begin to take on
significant importance as we move from kind
of that childhood role into autonomy and independence and we kind of start
achieving these things as we kind of start
to leave the nest. So, another a big, big
factor here is social factor. The normed drinking
habits, right. If I’m hanging around people
who are binge-drinking I’m more likely to binge-drink. Especially as we start
reaching the age of 21, right. Because then it’s
legal for us to drink. It’s no longer illegal
for us to do so, so that accessibility
becomes increased. And so it’s important for
us to understand low risk and high risk drinking
related behaviors. And so one of those is
the 0 1 2 3 Guidelines. I don’t know if anybody’s kind
of aware of what those are. And this is in regard to
alcohol and alcohol alone. This is not talking
about any drugs. So the 0 1 2 3
Guidelines are low risk guidelines for
alcohol consumption. It’s not no risk,
but it is low risk. And so it’s zero means
I’m not drinking at all. I’m not having any at all. One means, I’m having no more than one standard
drink per hour. Two means, I’m having no more than two standard
drinks on any or on… No more than two standard
drinks in one day. And three is no more than three standard drinks
on any given occasion. And so those are the low risk guidelines. Okay so
what are some risks factors for this age range? So lack of commitment to
conventional adult roles. So at this age range, I am
moving again from kind of that childhood thing to
autonomy and to independence and so there are gonna
be responsibilities that I’m gonna have to face
and I’m gonna have to meet and I’m gonna have
to kind of start moving into this different role. And so if I have lack
of commitment to that or I’m not kind of rising
to that developmental task it’s gonna put me at risk. Continued anti-social behavior
continues to put me at risk. For family, leaving home, right. And that’s not to say that
we shouldn’t leave home, but that’s just to say
it’s gonna be a risk. It’s a transition, we are
going from a, hopefully, a safety environment where
kinda it was very structured to our own independent
environment that might not, we don’t know the norms, we’re kind of setting
it up as we go. And so just inherently that
transition puts us at risk. Once again, doesn’t necessarily
mean it’s a bad thing, it just, it’s risky. School, peer, and community, so not participating in
future oriented activities. Now, here a lot of
people might say if you’re not going to
college you might be at risk, but for me, I’m kind of
looking at college, work, technical training,
just in general looking towards the future. Looking towards
transitioning from that previous life
role of student and child alone to
okay I’m an adult and now I need to be
looking towards the future. Whether that’s continuing
to be a student, with work, with whatever it is. Family, building a family. And then having
substance using peers. So if I have peers who
use, I’m more likely to use and I’m more likely
to use in the patterns in which they are using. So if they’re drinking heavily, I’m more likely
to drink heavily. So for protective factors,
so identity exploration. So I’m able to explore
what my values are in love, work, school, just in general
I’m able to really explore and begin to solidify
myself in these areas. My status as an adult, right. So I understand what
that role means. I’m able to meet the
tasks of that role, right. I’m starting to
feel self-sufficient
and self-efficacy. I feel confident in my
ability to do these things. Whether that’s paying
my bills, going to work, whatever it is, I’m
able to meet these tasks and I’m able to meet these
task successfully, right. I continue to be future-oriented
and achievement focused. So I’m able to kind
of work towards achieving things for myself. So family, I’m starting to be
able to balance my autonomy with my family connections. Again, it’s important for
us to be able to have both. So I’m developing
that independence, but I’m also maintaining
those connections that I’ve developed
hopefully throughout my life. And then, behavioral
and emotional autonomy. I am responsible
for my emotions. I am responsible
for my behaviors. I’m aware of my
responsibilities, my accountability
to those, right. So I have that regulation, I have that ability
to be in control. School, peers and
communities, right, so I’m provided opportunities
to explore in work and school and to
kind of work towards that future that I want. And I feel connected to
adults outside of my family and maintain those connections. Okay, so I just unloaded
a whole lot of information to you guys and whether
or not all of it sticks, you have the handout
so, hopefully, you
can kind of go back and look at it as you need. But some major take aways. So first, and foremost,
we need to delay use. That is what prevention is. We need to delay first use, first onset of any
sort of substance use. That is going to be
the biggest factor. ‘Cause you can’t become
addicted to a substance if you don’t use it. So if we can prevent
people from using it and delay the first
time they use it, the better off we’re gonna be. Okay, the next one is
we need to have stable and supportive and consistent
parent/guardian relationships, right, with our children. So it’s stable, it’s supportive,
it’s consistent, right. We’re able to form
those attachments, ’cause those attachments impact so many of those
different risk factors that we’re talking about. The ability to get
along with others, my emotional regulation. All of those things
can be tied back to that attachment, right. And then we promote school
and community environments that promote personal and
emotional safety, right. So we begin to have
in these environments that I’m able to be safe and I’m able to be securely
attached, as well as, promoting kind of,
as we talked about, those school environments
that have supports, that have resources, that
lift every single one of those students up and doesn’t
kind of leave anybody behind. Increase our ability
to self-regulate and respond to situations
in self-enhancing ways. So we’re giving, we’re
giving people skills. They’re able to regulate. They’re able to cope in
ways that are helpful. And then we need to
increase our ability to kind of be in
control of that. We also need to
limit our exposure, limit exposure to
substance abuse, right. So, whether it’s in the
family, in our community, through the media, the
exposure to substance use, norms substance use and it
increases that accessibility and availability and we
need to decrease those. So we need to limit
that exposure. And then we need to
talk about substance use and the risk of
addiction in helpful ways versus scare tactics, right, ’cause addiction
is a real thing. As much as we would like to
enhance all of these protective factors and decrease all
of these risk factors, the fact of the matter is,
there’s still gonna be exposure. There’s still gonna be
availability and accessibility at some point in
time in our lives. And so it’s important for us
to give children, yes children, not just adults,
information about alcohol and drugs and opiates
and all of them. We need to give people
information and talk, have real conversations
about the dangers and not just the scare
tactics version of them. And so we need to talk
about those things. All right, so the last thing
I have here is a resource and it’s from NIDA and
it’s a prevention resource and if you follow the
link that’s on here it will take you to
kind of the principles of kind of this prevention
approach in communities. So that is what I
have for risk factors and protective factors. I hope some of it has
been informational. I think we have some minutes
left if we have some questions. I’m not sure if there
were any questions throughout the
presentation or not. – Thank you so much, Amber. If you do have any questions, feel free to type those into
the question box right now. We do have a couple of minutes,
so feel free to do that. As you’re typing or thinking, I’ll also draw your
attention to the chat box where we’ve linked
our YouTube channel, as well as, the survey
link for this webinar so you’ll have access to those. And again, we always
appreciate feedback so feel free to send
in those comments. As we wait, I’ll give a few
minutes sometimes a slow typer. So, we’ll give them a chance. But one thing I noticed, Amber, that came through
in your presentation was just how important
relationships are regardless of who it’s with, but how protective those
relationships can really be. – Yeah, definitely and it’s
having that connection. That connection with others
and kind of really avoiding that isolation and that
ability to kind of, you know, we’re social
creatures at heart. And so being able to kind
of have that connectedness and have that attachment
and that meaning and purpose with other people. – Yeah, I think it’s
helpful for anybody who works as a
service provider, too, to know that just
your relationship really makes a
difference, you know, as well as having
parents or friends. So, I noticed in
one of your slides, your early slides I think, it noted a risk factor can be maybe a lack of responsiveness
from mothers specifically. And I know sometimes
that can make people a little bit uncomfortable but I thought it’s
nice to point out that comes from
research findings that have primarily
been done with women and women are more likely to
respond to research studies. So sometimes we get that result, but it’s really
caregivers in general. – Yep, yep, yep and I
think it said mothers, but I tried very hard
to say caregivers. And it is, it’s
primary caregivers. So it’s whoever is
providing the care and that can come
from you know a mother or father or guardian even. Just it’s the caregivers that
kind of having that attachment with those caregivers
is what’s important. – Yes, yep. All right. I don’t see any questions but if anybody has some feel free to put those
on the survey as well. We’re happy to address
them at a later time. I’ll put another plug in
for our YouTube channel. Feel free to check those
out and share them. And thank you so
much to you, Amber, and also to all
of our attendees. Have a great day. – Thanks, guys.

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