What is an Abbreviation? / English Addict – 50 / Wed 11th March 2020 / with Mr Duncan

What is an Abbreviation? / English Addict – 50 / Wed 11th March 2020 / with Mr Duncan


it’s a windy day outside as you can see
the wind is blowing however there are some signs that spring is on its way
oh I can’t wait until spring arrives I can’t wait until this horrible horrible
long wet winter is right behind us welcome everyone here we go again it is
a special edition of English addict live because today it is episode 50 coming to
you live from the birthplace of English which is yes England come on quickly I can’t wait I was so
excited this morning because I knew that I would be presenting my 50th English
addict lesson already can you believe we have already reached episode 50 oh there
is something I’ve forgotten to do excuse me a moment I’ve had such a busy morning there we go a little bit of hand
sanitizer before I start presenting my show today hmm it smells rather nice it
smells like bubble gum how lovely I’ve had a busy morning once
again I’m sorry I’m late once more I am late with my live stream
don’t worry I have a very good excuse because my heating system this morning
the heating system in my house decided to stop working so I had to phone one of
my friends up he happens to be heating engineer so he came from Wolverhampton
all away from Wolverhampton and this ties in with the thing that everyone is
talking about at the moment which is coronavirus because over in
Wolverhampton not very far away from where I live there are now confirmed
cases of coronavirus the covered 19 virus so I was a little worried this
morning when he came I I said you haven’t got coronavirus have you and he
laughed he thought he was hilarious the only problem was I was being serious
I wasn’t joking I wasn’t actually making a joke to be honest I was being serious
anyway the good news is my heating is now working again so that is nice thank
you very much John my heating repairman who came this
morning to sort out my broken heater in the house so now I’m nice and warm in my
studio again isn’t it nice lovely hmm Oh guess what
as I mentioned today it is a very special episode because today yes yes
honestly I’m not joking today is a special English addict episode because
it is as I already mentioned episode 50 we are all here together again I wonder
how many people know who I am do you know me
Do You Know Who I am I am mr. Duncan that is my name there it is now on the
screen and I teach English on YouTube I’ve been doing it for ever such a long
time can you guess how long I have been teaching English on YouTube
14 years almost so this year I will be celebrating my 14th anniversary on
YouTube teaching English from the very early
days of YouTube I was here doing this I was joking
I was right here hello to the live chat of course I mustn’t forget about you
because you are the most important part of this thing without you I have nothing
nothing at all so hello to everyone oh hello to black gut chat hello to you
guess what you are first on today’s live chat Wow welcome welcome one welcome all
grace chin hello to you as well you are second on today’s live chat hello to you
sweetness is here how are you mr. Duncan how is mr. Steve
I hope he is fine good news mr. Steve is feeling very well
he is better he had a little fever last week so I was a little bit worried I was
slightly concerned however mr. Steve has now fully recovered and he has gone back
to work he was hoping to have some time off he thought maybe he could have 14
days free holiday unfortunately not he doesn’t have coronavirus and nor do I
so it is back to work unfortunately so I have no excuse in
fact I’ve just realised if I get coronavirus I will still be able to work
because I’m at home so even though I might have to self isolate I I won’t
have any choice because I will still have to work because I’m at home that’s
not very nice is it I have a feeling I might be the last person on planet Earth
who is still working who knows hello Rolfie I hope you are safe and sound
safe and sound if a person is safe and sound it means they are okay everything
around them is find and everything in their life is fine as well so everything
is okay I am very safe and sound
hello also highly quang nice to see you here again yes we are here together
again we are all here we have made it halfway through the week because today
it’s Wednesday hmmm that’s nice thank you Christina I
am very happy to hear about mr. Steve yes he is well he is fighting fit that
means he is very energetic he has lots of strength once again he is as strong
as a butcher’s dog a nurse says mr. Duncan please keep calm it is important
to respect the rules for staying safe and clean so washing your hands stay
away from other people and don’t shake hands
I didn’t this morning I didn’t do it when my heating engineer came this
morning to repair my heating system I didn’t shake hands I said hi hello and
that’s all I said and then I asked him if he had coronavirus and he laughed but
I was being serious I have a feeling that over the next few weeks we will all
start becoming germophobes germaphobes there it is in fact three forms of the
word so can you see it now on the screen so germophobe a person who is a
germaphobe is someone who is afraid of germs and microorganisms viruses things
like that so when we say that a person is a germaphobe we are using a noun it
is a noun that means a person who is afraid maybe they have an irrational
fear of germs and viruses so maybe a germaphobe is a person who might wash
their hands all the time or a person who is very concerned with micro organ
bacteria and viruses getting onto their skin so maybe they avoid doing anything
or maybe they are always cleaning their house because they feel that the house
is always dirty and then we have germaphobic which is the adjective form
so the adjective germaphobic names the person you are saying that that person
is germaphobic and then we have germophobia which means the fear of
germs so a germaphobe is a person any person who might be over cautious or too
afraid of germs and viruses however at the moment everyone is on high alert we
are all trying to keep ourselves safe because yes there are more cases of
coronavirus including here in the UK some of the new cases here are not very
far away from where I live however I am safe I am still well 100%
and also I have my toilet paper so my toilet paper is right here so I’m
feeling very happy very safe that I have my toilet paper other things that people
are rushing around buying include pasta as well so Pesta flour rice many of
these things people are now busy buying all sorts of stuff from the supermarkets
and also the shops as well very busy time and a lot of people getting very
concerned about the situation so I suppose we should say that the best
advice is to stay safe and stay clean make sure you always wash your hands
because I am and here in the UK I don’t know if
you’ve heard but we have a member of our government who has tested positive for
corona virus so even here in the UK one of our government officials has now come
down they have tested positive for corona virus would you like to see my
stock of toilet paper so here it is this is the the toilet paper that I ordered
last week so here it is that is my actual supply of toilet paper so I have
two packs now the reason why I have to multi packs is because I don’t do my
shopping every week I do my shopping every three weeks so that’s the reason
why on the screen there is so much toilet paper so that is actually my
toilet paper supply so you can see I have 18 rolls of toilet paper however
mr. Steve often uses a lot of toilet paper I don’t know how or why but mr.
Steve uses a lot of toilet paper I don’t know what he does with it
I really don’t so that is my supply of toilet paper
how much toilet paper do you have are you worried about it maybe you have
found another way of using something instead of toilet paper by the way it’s
a nice day here today it’s lovely outside shall we have a look outside the
window look at that there it is right now a view outside and you can see some
of the lovely cherry blossom on the trees and in the distance there are some
sheep looking very happy and content because now the grass is starting to
grow back and so they have lots of grass to graze on graze I love that word by
the way when an animal is grazing they are eating they are eating so they
are eating the grass or maybe some other food that grows from the ground they are
grazing so you can see in the distance there are lots of sheep grazing in the
field I hope you are feeling good today hello – oh hello – Corey are you going
to eat the toilet paper mr. Duncan not again I know last Sunday did you see me
on Sunday I was trying to eat the toilet paper because I thought maybe maybe it
might contain some sort of nutrition perhaps that’s the reason why people
have gone so crazy buying toilet paper who knows
anyway I hope you are staying safe where you are can I say a big hello to
everyone my lovely viewers in Italy have you been affected in Italy because I
know that there are lots of things happening there some of the news
concerning coronavirus is not accurate it is not true however some of it is
true so if you are in Italy and maybe you
have been affected in fact wherever you are wherever you are in the world if you
have been affected by coronavirus and maybe you are having to stay at home and
you are watching me now because you have nothing else to do please let me know I
would be very fascinated to find out hello Rakesh hello Irene hello – pal
Mira hello pal Mira nice to see you here as well taught at paper is the most
effective the protection against covered 19 well I’m not sure about that I
suppose the best way to stay healthy and avoid the coronavirus is very simple
really you just wash your hands regularly
and try to avoid direct contact with other people so I would say that those
are the best Buch Harry says graze yes graze an animal is eating from the
land directly they are grazing hi Lee Kwang says have you seen Alex D he
talked about you in your lesson yes I have seen it he actually talks all about
my lesson 1 my lesson 1 video which is a remake of my earlier lesson which is
basically the same lesson so thank you very much to everyone who is now
watching and who has joined me from Vietnam hello to everyone and thanks
once again to alex d for giving me a mention it’s very kind of you as I
understand it as I understand the situation I think Alex D actually used
my videos to improve his English as well so that’s how I understand it that’s my
interpretation of the situation so a big hello to everyone watching in Vietnam it
is great to see you here and I hope my lessons will be helpful to you don’t
forget I am here every week three times a week you can have me on your monitor
your computer monitor or maybe your mobile device Sunday Wednesday and
Friday I am here with you 2 p.m. UK time so make sure that you write down the
days and also the time 2 p.m. UK time Sunday Wednesday and Friday and of
course I suppose I should say that you are more than welcome to like and
subscribe yes like and subscribe that would be
ever so nice hello to wheeze lawa hello to you hello
also to Li Lille who says I have stopped lots of toilet paper as well I think
it’s nice to have the things you use in large quantities oh I like that yes
large quantities so some people are buying lots of things that they use on a
regular basis we might say that they are stockpiling if you stock pile
it means you buy more than you normally buy but you put it away for the future
so something that you might need later if there is a short supply however
having said that I don’t think we are going to run out of toilet paper on the
planet to be honest I think there will always be toilet paper around however
some people are really panicking about it they are starting to get very worried
hello – van new in is it difficult to buy masks in the UK at the moment not
many people are wearing masks so you won’t really see people in the UK
wearing masks so here we are more concerned with keeping our hands clean
and not having direct contact with other people so that means shaking hens so
people are avoiding direct contact with other people but no here in the UK
people aren’t wearing face masks I haven’t seen many people here where I
live in fact I haven’t seen anyone wearing face masks where I live no one
at all hello – ow
Gandhi hello – you nice to see you here al ghamdi Abdullah where are you
watching at the moment it is great to have your company here today and I hope
I will help you in some way with your English learning don’t forget my my
special rules for learning English learn English practise English every day make
English part of your life make it part of your body something you do something
you hear something you say every day so try to get used to using English every
day listen to my video lessons and also you can practice your speaking by
repeating what I say so there are many ways of improving your English many ways
we have some a very we have some very excited people here on the live chat
today very excited Pedro is here Oh Pedro Belmont is here today but how long
will he stay I do not know hello Pedro nice to see
you back again sujin hello sue Jean it seems a long
time since I saw you here most of us in South Korea are now wearing face masks
at the moment well I think the situation in South Korea is quite bad at the
moment however as I understand it it is now slowly slowly being controlled just
like China so apparently in China the number of people suffering has has
plateaued it has evened out so there are not many new cases happening and
wherever you are I hope you stay safe hello also – – an and new win who says I
am scared well I suppose it is natural it is a natural feeling
so maybe if something is happening around you that you have no control over
and I think this is one of the big problems with anything that comes along
that you can’t control so I think it is natural it is normal to feel afraid it
is normal to feel a little worried about the situation so my advice is don’t
worry too much as long as you stay safe keep your hands clean and I am sure you
will be alright hello to Iran hello Hameed reza hamid reza Karimi says
Iranians love you hello to Iran and I hope everything is all right there I
know there are quite a quite a few cases of corona virus also there here in the
UK a few more people have been infected and sadly we have now had some
fatalities so some people sadly here in the UK have died from corona virus
unfortunately Wael our eggsy says mr. Duncan after a few minutes I will invite
a lot of Saudis to subscribe to your channel because you deserve it
oh thank you very much that’s very kind as I always say everyone is welcome to
my English lessons wherever you are in the world whoever you are you are all
very welcome does the UK restrict any other countries
that is affected severely by coronavirus that’s interesting Tao dang thank you
very much for your question there are some restrictions at the
moment of course China is one of them because that’s where the whole thing
started and I believe there are now restrictions for people coming back from
Italy however it is a little confusing because
apparently some people are being tested when they return and other people are
not so generally speaking people are still being allowed to go away however
when they return to the UK they are being told to self isolate or stay away
from other people for two weeks so the advice I suppose is a little confusing
but I would say that if you’ve been somewhere where coronavirus has broken
out maybe there are are many people many people affected I would say that it is a
good idea maybe to isolate yourself just to make sure that you are okay and in
many parts of the UK there is also testing taking place I haven’t had the
corona test so I haven’t been tested for coronavirus because well first of all I
feel perfectly alright and where I live there there are no cases at the moment
fortunately you are one of a kind teacher thank you very much
Algar me it’s very kind of you to say thank you yes I think it is natural and
normal to be afraid it is a natural response I think so
so a natural feeling can I just tell you now there are things that I’m afraid of
there are things that I fear we all have fear it is part of our survival this is
how human beings have managed to survive so fear is part of survival and I
suppose being afraid is something that sometimes we can’t control so I’m not
saying that you should go out and buy lots and lots of toilet paper but I am
saying that sometimes it is normal to feel afraid however I think the best
advice is not to overreact I think that is it try to stay
calm as it says here on my screen would you like to see it keep calm and wash
your hands I think that is the best advice I can give you at the moment
Keep Calm and wash your hands I think that’s it that’s it that’s my advice
maybe maybe you can you can show this to your friends maybe you can make a
screenshot and maybe you can show this to your friends Keep Calm and wash your
hands that is my advice hello Alamgir I can’t stay because I am
holding a phone with my hands instead I love putting hands in my pocket and
sometimes raising hands can be the cause of death oh I’m not sure what Allen gear
is talking about there I am very interested by the way today we are
talking about something have you ever been in the newspaper have you ever been
featured in a newspaper article so perhaps you have done something
interesting or amazing maybe you win a contest or maybe you did something that
got a lot of attention and then suddenly you appeared in the newspaper suddenly
your face has appeared in the newspaper now I have been featured in the
newspaper a few times not only here but also abroad as well so here is one
photograph first of all so this is me in the newspaper so there I am in the
newspaper yes that is me by the way so this particular photograph appeared in
the newspaper in 1981 and I went to the local newspaper to have some of my
drawings photocopied and someone in the newspaper office said
oh we like your view we like your pictures can we do an article about you
in the newspaper and I said yes okay so all I did was go into the newspaper
office to to photocopy some of my pictures that I’d drawn and then
suddenly a week later I was in the newspaper another reason why I was in
the newspaper no not because I committed a crime
nothing like that Here I am once again so this time I was
featured in a newspaper article about a local radio station and I was one of the
presenters at the radio station you can see there my name at the bottom
Duncan James that’s me by the way so there I am this particular photograph
was taken in 1988 so this one a little bit later so you can see the photograph
there so that one that one was taken in 1981 and that one was taken in 1988
eighty one eighty eight yes I did change quite a bit between those photographs I
did change a lot in fact so have you ever been in the newspaper have you ever
been featured in an article has anyone ever been in the newspaper ever hello
Luis Luis Mendez is here nice to see you here Oh Luis Mendez has been to the
dentist ah so what has happened to your teeth I
have to make an appointment with the dentist soon unfortunately I have a
couple of problems with my teeth hello everyone today I am very busy
because of work I will see you all later on zu zu z cat hello to you and goodbye
to you I hope to see you later on hello also to Julie Julie is here
keep calm and wash your hands and don’t touch your nose or your mouth or your
eyes with your hands good advice there thank you Anna for your advice so have
you ever been in the newspaper have you ever been featured in the newspaper so I
remember many years ago also as a child I appeared in the newspaper with some of
my classmates I can’t remember why I think it was something to do with
singing because when I was at Primary School I used to be in a choir I used to
sing with my school choir I used to love doing it as well so I’ve been in the
newspaper quite a few times but what about you have you ever been in the
newspaper after three years I finally know your surname mr. Duncan really well
my surname my first name is Duncan and my full name Duncan James and that’s
what I am known as too many people on the internet by the way talking of the
Internet if you want to get in touch if you want to write to me or if you want
to follow me on Facebook you are more than welcome to do so who some very interesting messages
coming through here very interesting indeed how hamid reza hamid reza says i
am a journalist and i love that you will be more famous well i hope i hope more
people will have a chance to follow my live streams here on youtube that would
be ever so nice i remember i have been in a newspaper says lille and it was in
a picture for a group of people oh I see so you were with other people so you
weren’t on your own you were actually standing with other people maybe a group
of people interesting why do you have to save a lot of toilet paper well at the
moment I have a lot of toilet paper because that’s what I normally buy so
normally I buy my shopping and it has to last for three weeks or sometimes four
weeks so I haven’t bought my toilet paper because of coronavirus in fact
what I’ve done is I’ve bought the normal amount of toilet paper that I normally
buy so this is not because of coronavirus in case you’re wondering
this is just what I normally buy what I normally get because it has to last me
for four weeks because I don’t do my shopping every week I normally do it
maybe once or sometimes twice a month so that’s the reason why Cory says I love
your hair mr. Duncan can I just say in my life I’ve had some very strange
hairstyles I really have I’ve had my hair very long I’ve had my hair very
short I’ve even had my hair different colors I once
colored my hair red can you believe it although it was in the 1980s to be
honest with you many people in the 1980s were coloring their hair so that’s the
reason why I did that but yes I’ve had my hair done in many
ways however I like I like my hair in this photograph I like my hair can you
see it it looks it looks very strange it looks curly and that’s because my
hair was very curly in that photograph so I quite liked my hair there I wish my
hair looked like that now unfortunately it doesn’t unfortunately my hair does
not look like that anymore sadly not anymore I was I think I was 17
17 years old when that photograph was taken so it was a very long time ago
I’m pretty sure there are lots of people now adding on their fingers trying to
work out how old I am mmm I think so so we are talking about lots
of things today including abbreviations as well do you ever see abbreviations in
your day-to-day life and it’s very interesting that there are many ways of
using abbreviations and there are many types of abbreviation as well so that is
something we are going to look at a little bit later on not just yet
because right now I want to show you an excerpt from one of my lessons oh yes I
I can’t resist showing you an excerpt from a lesson I made many years ago
talking all about spring because spring is now in the air spring is approaching
do you have spring where you are well if you don’t this is what this is what it
looks like here in the UK of course springtime here in England
would not be complete without mentioning the flower that has become synonymous
with this particular season the daffodil this flower can be easily found during
spring in both the countryside and the suburban Gardens all across Britain
there are many different varieties to be found here the most common one
displaying an all yellow flower head it is called the king alfred narcissus
there is even a miniature daffodil which originally grew in Portugal and Spain
the poet William Wordsworth immortalized the daffodil inverse with his famous
poem simply entitled daffodils I wandered lonely as a cloud that floats
on high o’er vales and Hills when all at once I saw a crowd a host of golden
daffodils beside the lake beneath the trees fluttering and dancing in the
breeze springtime does not arrive at the same
time everywhere in the world for example springtime in Australia
comes as we in England prepare for winter countries in the northern
hemisphere experience spring near the start of each new year while those
living in the southern hemisphere experience spring towards the end during the cold winter months some
creatures will go to sleep we call this hibernation this happens
because food tends to be scarce during the winter season during early spring
these animals will wake up again creatures that hibernate include bats
dormice hedgehogs and many types of insects
although most birds do not hibernate there is in fact one that does it is
called the poor will and can be found in certain parts of the USA hello pretty girl bird hello handsome
boy bird hmm why do we go away together somewhere okay for most animals
springtime is the season for well you know the birds and the bees and all the
other animals get together to make little versions of themselves okay no
more beating about the bush it’s the mating season for example many birds
will begin to build nests using old twigs mud and dead leaves the females
will lay their eggs and assuming that no other predator comes along and eats them
the eggs will hatch out many other animals will also begin breeding during
spring including rabbits sheep and various other wildlife I hope you
enjoyed that an excerpt from one of my lessons all about springtime because
spring is definitely on the way spring is on its way I hope you are
feeling good today hi everybody here we go then
I hope you are having a good one it is Wednesday and it is yes look at that
it’s episode 50 of English addict I can’t believe it I can’t believe already
I have made it all the way to episode 50 of English addict I hope you are
enjoying today’s livestream hello to Ana Ana Rita asks do they know do they know
you as the famous English teacher on YouTube in Much Wenlock mr. Duncan so do
local people know me for my English lessons on YouTube some people do there
are some people who are on the council they are very higher officials in Much
Wenlock and they know all about my work and they are very keen and very
interested in what I do they are quite inquisitive because quite
often I will talk about Much Wenlock I will talk about the place in which I
live and quite a few people have expressed an interest they’ve said oh we
would very much like to come to where you live we would like to come to your
town one day for a visit so yes some people do know me for my English lessons
some people know me because of my filming of course because quite often I
will walk around making my lessons and sometimes I will also do live streams as
well so I will do live streams from in the town where I live so all of the
people are walking around me and there I am standing in the local square talking
to myself or talking into the camera whilst doing a live stream so yes some
people do know me some people don’t want to know me some
people want to know more about me it just depends really it depends who it is
so we are talking about abbreviations today I think this is an interesting
subject to be honest I think this is quite an interesting subject hello –
fing Feng Quin nice to see you here today we should all
plant trees because we damage nature so much says quarry
hello also – marina nice to see you as well thank you for your lovely comments
about my spring lesson I love this time of year
I love spring time because it’s when everything starts to wake up all of the
plants and all of the trees start to wake up again and of course many animals
also go to sleep during winter Pedro says Mr Duncan you can introduce
yourself like James Bond you can say my name is Duncan James Duncan like James
Bond well unfortunately my name is the other way round
so James is my second name Duncan is my first name so we have it in a different
order Palmero mr. Duncan you are the best ambassador for your area
Shropshire thank you very much for that Thank You pal Miura that’s very kind so
yes some people do know me some people find me slightly annoying because I’m
always walking around with the camera and here in the UK people get very
afraid whenever they see someone with a camera they always think maybe their
privacy is going to be invaded somehow coy hello coy new Winn wants to ask me a
question well you can ask it doesn’t mean that you’re going to get an answer
but you can always ask the question it doesn’t mean I will answer it so it
really depends on your question Marina says all of your lessons have
interesting subjects thank you very much well today’s subject there you can see
we are talking about abbreviations to shorten a word or sentence so as to make
it easier to use you abbreviate something to save time so abbreviation
is an action where you shorten a word or in some cases you also shorten a
sentence as well so there are many ways of using abbreviations quite often we
will shorten something and there are many different ways of using
abbreviations we also have lots of words that we can use as well for example you
abbreviate you shorten you cut you curtail you abridge you condense
abbreviate shortened cut curtail abridge condense so if you abbreviate something
you make it shorter quite often we do this because we we want to save time
quite often if you are writing things down if you are writing things down and
you have to do it quickly sometimes it is very useful to abbreviate shorten to
make something shorter so abbreviation can be very useful very useful thing
indeed so there are many ways of defining the word also there are four
types of abbreviation I don’t know if you know this but there are four types
of abbreviation you have initialism acronym
shortening and also contraction so initialism acronym shortening and also
contraction so these are the four types of abbreviation so first of all
initialism well there you can see now on the screen
initialism an initialism is formed from the first letters of a group of words we
pronounce each letter individually so we have some examples of initialism so this
is a very popular form of abbreviation so quite often we will use these
abbreviations when we want to say something that contains a lot of words
and letters so we can shorten it and we call this initialism so we have some
examples here of abbreviations using the initials FBI so you have FBI so you are
taking the first letter from each word f.b.i Federal Bureau of Investigation
you will also notice that you don’t use the word of so when you form an
abbreviation this type of abbreviation does not include of and also and is
normally ignored so the Federal Bureau of Investigation is the FBI ASAP this
means as soon as possible could you do it ASAP could you do it as soon as
possible CD I’m sure most people know that this
means compact discs it’s much easier to say CD that is of course if you still
have them because most people now don’t use CDs then we
have CEO chief executive officer f AQ frequently asked questions so these are
all examples of initialism this is one particular type of abbreviation P L C
public limited company you F o unidentified flying object u.s.a United
States of America v a t-value added tax so there you can see some examples of
initializing you will just take the first letter from each main word hello
to the live chat oh yes there are some other ones as well there are many
abbreviations that we can use quite a few hello to my hand
new in I know you through mr. Alex D I think there are many people here
watching at the moment who may have come from Alex D so a big hello to all those
watching in Vietnam and all of the viewers of Alex D nice to see you here
today Tao dang says on my cooker there is a
function with the word DIY I have never used that can you explain what DIY means
so the initials DIY normally they will stand for do-it-yourself
so Do It Yourself Do It Yourself d.i.y so quite often if you are doing
something on your own if you are not getting another person to
help you you might just do it yourself I don’t know why it appears on your cooker
so maybe where you are perhaps DIY means something else so maybe it has another
meaning where you are I’m not sure hello to Bukhari am a man I am watching you
from Niger oh hello to you hello Bukhari mog mog is
here when I send SMS so even SMS on your mobile phone such as this one so in my
hand at the moment I have my my mobile phone and you can see I’m watching
myself on my mobile phone but also quite often on my mobile phone
I will send s M s and this means short message service
so the SMS means short message service you will send text messages so that’s
what SMS means when you are sending a message on your phone short message
service Pham my also says I know you from Alex D Wow thank you very much and
welcome welcome to my lovely community of English learners everyone here is in
English addict we are crazy about English so there are many initialisms
and of course there are some rules as well for capital letters so here are the
rules for using capital letters when we are using abbreviations in the form of
initialisms if the first letter of the full form are capital letters then we
always write the abbreviation with capital letters for example
in the full form we always write Federal Bureau of Investigation with capital
letters for the first letters of each word because it is the name of an
official organization so that is the reason why we put capital letters
therefore we have no choice we must also write the abbreviated form in capitals
so Federal Bureau of Investigation is always spelt and written with capital
letters and so the actual abbreviation will also have capital letters I hope
I’ve explained that clearly and we also have rules for full stops when we are
talking about initializing abbreviations so in British
English we do not normally put full stops between each letter for
initialisms so you can see some examples there FBI know full stops no calm no
periods no spacing with full stops so we never put full stops between the
initials in American English it is a question of style using full stops is
more common in American English so you can see the examples at the bottom FBI
can be written down with or without full stops or as they say in American English
periods so a period is a full stop now we have oh I like the I like these very
much I really do I love acronyms what about you do you
like acronyms an acronym is formed from the first letters of a group of words we
pronounce the acronym as a word so you will actually say
the abbreviation as if it is a word for example NASA the National Aeronautics
and Space Administration is abbreviated in the form of an acronym so we say NASA
to be honest with you that is much easier to say then we have NATO the
North American Treaty Organization but it is much easier to say NATO then we
have OPEC something that has been in the news over the past couple of days the
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries we call it OPEC because it’s
much easier to say and then we have pin pin this means your personal
identification number it is often used as a code for your bank card someone
might steal your pin or your pin number then we have RAM which is used in
computing random access memory so this basically refers to computer
memory we call it Ram then we have sim now this is often used in cell phones or
mobile phones so SIM stands for subscriber identification module it is
the little card that you put in your phone to make it work then we have that
this is something that exists here in the UK so when you buy something when
you buy something you have to pay v a T so this is a type of tax that is put on
top of things that you buy certain items will have V a T or quite often we will
call it that value-added tax and finally we have zip zip which is
normally used in the USA zone improvement plan so this is the postcode
that is used in the USA the type of post code that is used in the United States
they call it the zip or some people say zip code so if you look at the bottom v8
e value added tax is a special case it can be two types of abbreviation it can
be an acronym and we pronounce it as one word VAT which rhymes with cat that it
can also be treated as an initialism and we pronounce each letter separately v80
so v80 all that means the same thing value-added tax with this type of
abbreviation we do not use full stops after each letter of an acronym this is
because we treat acronyms as words and pronounce them as words we never write
full stops in the middle of words it is a basic grammar rule you never put full
stops in the middle of words hello to the live chat a lot of people here nice
to see so many people here today thank you very much for your lovely messages
yes we often write abbreviations with capital letters especially if the
abbreviation is an organization or something that is a name a name we also
have Jamelia here oh hello Jamelia I haven’t seen you for a while nice to see
you back here today Rolfie it is worth say
that social media and the use of smartphones has contributed a lot when
it comes to acronyms and abbreviations yes there is a whole a whole language
nowadays that is used by young people on their mobile phones or their cell phones
so when they are actually sending messages on their phones they will use
lots of abbreviations and lots of slang that has been abbreviated so yes you are
right you are right pal Mira says oh hello Luis Mendez I did not know do you
know the meaning of Bistrot it derives from the Russian bistro for example
quickly oh I see so the word bistro which you will see used often in the USA
and also in France and here as well so even here in the UK we have bistros it
actually derives from Russian I didn’t know that to be honest
hello mr. Duncan from Silvia nice to see you here today hello to you
I will have to watch this video several times says Guadalupe well that is the
wonderful thing about YouTube the wonderful thing is you can watch this
lesson many times you don’t have to watch it one time you can watch it as
many times as you want you can watch it once or you can watch it a thousand
times if you feel like it so we are talking about different types of
abbreviation here’s another one shortenings shortenings a shortening is
an abbreviation in which the beginning or the end of the word has been left out
or omitted so if you omit something if you omit something it means you leave it
out you don’t include it there are two types of shortenings you have type one
which is treated as a real word for example you might have add add so when
we say add we are actually saying advertisement to promote a product or
service is an ad did you see the ad in the newspaper I am going to put an ad in
the newspaper so quite often we will shorten the word but also we will use it
as a word so ad is a shortening of advertisement and then we have app so
for all those who use their mobile phones app means application however we
actually use the proper word as well we use app as the word to describe an
application and then we have flu flu a lot of people at the moment are
suffering from flu and a few people have also got corona virus which is not flu
so flu is once again a shortening of influenza influenza so a lot of people
these days will say flu instead of influenza then we have blog well a web
blog or a web log so a web log is a recording normally in text so you will
write things down you were right you may be stories about your life or maybe you
will write some information about a certain topic blog so web log is the
full form and the shortened is Blagh Blagh
many years ago I used to have my own blog then we have Rhino rhino a rhino it
well as you can see it is the abbreviation of rhinoceros rhinoceros
which is a wild animal also an animal that is hunted quite alarmed so we use
type 1 shortenings like real words we write them and say them as one word so
even though you are shortening the word you are still pronouncing the
abbreviation as if it is a word then we have typed – shortening so these are not
treated as real words now this means that you can write them down but you
can’t pronounce them you don’t use them when you are speaking they are only used
when you write not when you speak so the type – shortenings are not treated as
real words for example you have February Saturday and Wednesday they are all
shortened you can see that they are shortened however we only use these
abbreviations when we are writing we never use them when we are speaking so
you never say Feb you never say Sat you never say wed when you are using the
abbreviations you will always say the full word however if you are writing you
will use the abbreviation so you only use them when you are writing down as
you can see also we have e.t.c which means etc etc which is Latin for and the
rest type do shortenings are only used in writing but when we say or read
we say the full version of the word so if we are writing please send me the
fehb accounts well you will never say that you will always say please send me
the February accounts so you only use this type of shortening when you are
writing when you are writing this is a big topic but I hope it is interesting yes
ad so you have ad which is advertisement and you have app app which means
application I’ll try not to forget that says Ralphy I’m very pleased to hear
that hello also Anna nice to see you here
Oh liang shuang new ian hi teacher and everyone in the class I am late it’s ok
LAN it’s ok as I always say it is better to be safe than sorry it is better to be
late than never hello min min Xiao Pham as well nice to
see you here watching on the livestream so we do have a lot of abbreviations and
there are many types of abbreviation as well so finally we have all we have
contractions contractions now contractions are something you will see
a lot in English contractions contractions are abbreviations in which
we omit letters from the middle of a word we do not write a full stop at the
end of a contraction the first letter is a capital letter only only if the full
word starts with a capital letter so you can see some type 1 contractions
and these are missing letters from one word so you can see some common examples
of contractions for example doctor doctor so when we use a contraction
we are shortening a word by leaving certain letters out dr. so you can see
that we are using the first letter and the last letter government and once
again you can see the contraction that is used so these types of contractions
are missing letters from just one word one word then we have st. quite often
you will see this abbreviation used normally outside churches or quite often
in the street as well you might see some streets named after a famous saint and
then we have mr. as in mr. Duncan and then we have type 2 contractions which
include missing letters from more than one word we often use an apostrophe in
fact we always use an apostrophe to represent the missing letters so where
the letters are missing you will put an apostrophe in its place so for example
she is becomes she’s they would becomes they’d do not become don’t we will
becomes will will and those are the contractions we use contractions a lot in English in
fact I have talked about contractions right here on my English lessons on my
English addict livestream I have talked all about contractions and in English we
use them quite often especially when we are in a hurry
when we don’t have time to say everything all the things we want to say
hello Belarusian hello Connell hello hi Arnab hello also LAN a game nice to see
you here thank you very much for your lovely company Belarus ear is here
hello Belarus ear Luis Mendez went to the dentist the other day for a hygiene
checkup hmm I was wondering if Lewis went to see you
maybe he got on a plane and flew all the way to have his teeth checked I don’t
know so we have something else to look at now we have some initial ations or
initialisms can you see these do you know any of these can you identify any
of these so these are abbreviations that are often used in English they are
abbreviations of well-known organizations so do you know any of
these can you name any of them I will give you a chance to leave your messages
so if you know any of these please tell me please say mr. Jenkin I know what
they are or I know what some of those are let me know thanks teacher for a
nice lesson that’s okay I’m not going just yet I will be going in around ten
minutes ten minutes I will be going mappack says Oh mr. Duncan
I know one of them I know one of them there it is that one
r.i.p we say r.i.p we in peace rest in peace
r.i.p and we use this when we are talking about a person who has recently
died we might say rest in peace I hope they rest in peace
r.i.p that’s a good one mappack says oh i can see what mr.
Duncan I can see one un there it is un United Nations so when we say UN we
are saying United Nations a group of countries that all come together pachu
says BBC in fact a couple of people have mentioned BBC where is it there it is
BBC is a well-known television company based in the UK BBC is an abbreviation
of British Broadcasting Corporation British Broadcasting Corporation Tam
hello Tam GDP GDP says tam where is it GDP right at the bottom GDP relates to
gross domestic product so it normally relates to the productivity within a
certain country black gotcha says oh yes there is another one there
WH o WH o stands for it means the World Health Organization the World Health
Organization and of course at the moment we are we are hearing a lot a lot of
things about the world old health organization as they talk all
about the coronavirus we have IOC IOC now IOC means
International Olympic Committee IOC the International Olympic Committee Oktay
also has World Health Organization there it is World Health Organization I think
we’ve almost got all of them now almost all of them Cory is going now
see you later Cory I will be back with you on Friday by the way I am back with
you on Friday just in case you were
wondering when I am back with you Matt PAC says RSPCA oh yes that is quite a
long one isn’t it RSPCA so here in the UK we have an
organization that takes care of animals so animals that have been abandoned or
maybe animals that are ill RSPCA the Royal Society for the Protection of
Cruelty to Animals the RSPCA the Royal Society for the
Protection of Cruelty or prevention Prevention of Cruelty to Animals RSPCA
so that is an organization we have in this country that takes care of animals there are many abbreviations of cities
around the world yes thank you you have spotted you have spotted that one la la
Los Angeles Los Angeles so a lot of people will say la in
of Los Angeles I’m off to LA for two weeks la Los Angeles Los Angeles PC PC
well PC isn’t there but yes you are right
PC means personal computer also here in the UK a lot of people say PC to me
political correctness so things that you have to say to avoid offending anyone we
call it political correct or political correctness Alfredo asks what does DND oh there it
is yes dn D means do not disturb
do not disturb d n D do not disturb so maybe if you work in an office building
an office building you might see the sign on the door it says D and D do not
disturb do not come in of course there are many others as well TLC says Jamelia t L see yes
TLC tender loving care tender loving care if you treat someone tenderly you
treat them gently you treat them well you treat them with love and kindness T
L C RSVP yes an RSVP is normally asked for when you are inviting someone to a
party so maybe you will you’ll you will invite a person to a party
and you will ask them to respond so respond ACV play respond de cebú play is
RSVP and of course it is French f.y.i for your information I know I featured
that in one of my English lessons I did so those are the abbreviations now we
have all we have some an acronym so we have NASA opec ASAP
POTUS czars and also brick brick which refers to a group of Nations
so NASA OPEC ASAP and also POTUS czars and brick so Nash Nessa first of all
let’s look at Nessa Nessa so that is a well known acronym Nessa what is
political correctness political correctness is a type of behavior or the
way you do things so as not to offend other people so you avoid offending
other people you choose your words carefully or you have to include
everyone in what you are talking about so political correctness is a very
strict way of guiding everyone to speak without causing offence the things you
must say the things you have to do the way you must behave so you don’t offend
anyone political correctness well so many messages coming through here thank
you very much so we have NASA the National Aeronautics and Space
Administration and then we have OPEC OPEC would anyone like to answer OPEC OPEC no no one’s going to answer OPEC I
will leave that open and then we have ASAP ASAP or ASAP ASAP means as soon as
possible you do something as soon as possible thank you Tom
NASA means National Aeronautics and Space Administration yes thank you then
we have POTUS I’m sure you know what this means
POTUS POTUS is an acronym for president of the United States so the President of
the United States now this is very unusual because they are using the word
the which we often leave out when we are shortening or abbreviating a word or a
sentence so POTUS stands for President of the United States Oh a lot of people
now have OPEC well done well done OPEC the Organization of Petroleum Exporting
Countries the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC paratus and
almost at the end almost finished SARS I’m pretty sure we all know what’s
ours is do you remember SARS way back in 2003 a lot of people were suffering from
SARS hmm Oasis you too hello Oasis you too I
guess they are your favorite groups I think you are a big fan of Oasis and
also you too watching in China hello to you where are you where am i I am in
England at the moment talking to you live so hi there Oasis you too where are
you in China which part of China are you in I am very interested to know
so SARS SARS rose red oh thank you rose red for your answer
SARS it is of course severe acute respiratory syndrome it’s not easy to
say that by the way that’s why we say SARS instead because it’s much easier to
say SARS instead of severe acute respiratory syndrome it’s too hard to
say so it’s much easier to say SARS severe means bad serious so if you have
something that is severe severe it means it is very very serious
something that is serious something that can cause harm is severe to treat
someone harshly or cruelly means severe you treat a person severely then we have
finally we have brick BR I see now many years ago we would use this to describe
a group of countries that were all developing at a very quick rate so this
actually means a group of countries Brazil Russia India and anyone Brazil
Russia India and China so the BRIC countries are a group of
countries that have been developing very quickly at a very high rate Brazil
Russia India China Thank You rose red once again you have been very active on
today’s live chat by the way very active before I go there is another interesting
part of this discussion about abbreviations there is also a
portmanteau which is a word that is made of the parts of two separate words so
you can take two separate words and you can take parts of those words and join
them together so portmanteau is actually a word that is created by using parts of
two words two separate words for example we have Motel Motel which is Motor Hotel
so a place where you park your car and then you will stay overnight at a hotel
we will often to refer to it we will often call it a motel then we have smog
this is also a portmanteau smoke fog so you might have a combination of smoke
and fog we will call it smog smog Cineplex
another portmanteau and this is a combination of the words cinema and
complex Cineplex and finally we have infomercial infomercial
and this is a portmanteau which is made up of informational commercial so an
informational commercial is called an infomercial infomercial so that is also
a portmanteau even the word portmanteau is a portmanteau so that’s strange yes
you can also call it blending you will take parts of two words and you will
blend them together you will put them together to create a new word quite
often we will refer to it as a portmanteau portmanteau that’s almost it
I can’t believe it in fact we have over run by seven minutes seven minutes I
will be back with you when will I be back oh I’m back on Friday
don’t forget I’m with you on Friday and Friday the third team Friday the 13th
many people believe that Friday the 13th is unlucky so I will see you then thank
you very much for your company thanks a lot I love England
I like the bands that come from Manchester says Oasis you too okay then
but whereabouts are you I’m very intrigued I’m interested to find out
where you are in China I really want to know hi Arnab thank you very much thank
you so much mr. Duncan for another great livestream I have to go now
mind yourself take care mr. Duncan I will try my best I hope you will take
care as well don’t forget keep your hands clean maybe you can use
a little bit of hand sanitizer or you can also wash your hands as well with
soap and hot water so I think there are many ways to stay safe during this
strange period of time that we are all going through what I would say my advice
would be keep calm and wash your hands that is my final word today
keep calm and wash your hands thank you very much for your company Thank You
solar salamu sir thank you very much thank you also to Lilia thank you also
to Isabella marina also Patrick mal Val thank you very much for your company
today also Jamelia LAN knew in watching in Viet Nam
can I say thank you to everyone watching in Vietnam it is so nice to see you here
I have had many requests over the past few days people asking mr. Duncan can
you please come to Vietnam I’m not sure at the moment I’m not sure if I will be
travelling anywhere this year because of the problem so I don’t think I will be
travelling to any countries this year as far as I know thank you also to Pat you
pal mirror thank you sue Gian nice to see you back by the way thank you thank
you for coming today thank you tau bang watching in Vietnam thank you
very much for watching me today it’s been nice to see you here please keep
calm and I will see you soon says Oktay that’s okay you are more than
welcome don’t forget also can you please like and subscribe I know it seems a
simple thing but if you like my video it will help my videos be seen on YouTube
thank you very much very nice to see you all today thanks a lot I am back on
Friday stay well stay happy keep that smile on your face and everything will
be all right this is mr. Duncan in the birthplace of
English saying thanks for watching thank you for joining me wherever you are in
the world I will see you on Friday 2 p.m. UK time and of course until the
next time we meet here on YouTube you know what’s coming next
yes you do ta ta for now 😎

10 comments

  1. TIME CODES – click on the blue time codes to skip forward to…
    LESSON BEGINS – 3:00 GERMOPHOBE – 11:42 MY TOILET PAPER SUPPLY – 15:47
    RESTRICT TRAVEL FROM UK – 28:09 NEWSPAPER APPEARANCE – 32:23 SPRING LESSON (excerpt) – 41:25
    ABBREVIATIONS – 52:28 GUESS THE ABBREVIATION LIST – 1:19:42 PORTMANTEAU – 1:34:59

  2. I really like lear English but i don't have who for talking ? Are you understand i talking? . please inbox for me .?

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